5.1 Chapter introduction
The findings from the analysis of primary data are written in this chapter. The research entailed collection of data and then processing it in relation to research questions. Collection of data and its analysis was motivated by three main goals. The first is to identify how the government policies on FDI have impacted on the Indian ports. Second, to investigate the impact of government plans to modernise ports on the Indian port sector. Third, to determine the impact of government initiatives of new port development on the Indian port sector. All these aforementioned objectives were accomplished by the researcher.
5.2 Response rate
The response rate was 90%. 90 questionnaires were administered by the researcher but only 70 respondents filled and submitted the questionnaires. This response rate of 90% was desirable as it was above the expected rate of 75%. Additionally, it was enough to generate data.
5.2.1 Response according to gender
The researcher wanted to find out the sex that had taken a bigger portion of the staff. The males were 51.4% while the females were 48.6% as shown in the table below. The implication of this is that most staff in the Indian port sector are males. Generally, the port sector tends to be a male dominated sector.
Table 2: Response according to gender
Frequency Valid Percent
male 34 48.6
female 36 51.4
Total 70 100.0

5.2.2 Response according to age
Besides gender, it was imperative to find out the age of the port staff. Port modernization, new port development and the impact of FDI are all dependant on technology. Furthermore, technological transfer and development of new skills is also dependent on age. While generation Y workers are more open to changes and new system and infrastructure, generation X employees are a bit reluctant. The findings of the study show that a majority of the study population was between 30 an d40 years and was represented by 44.3%. Age group 20-30 were 32.9%, 40-50 were 15.7% while above the age of 50 were 7.1%. This implies that the Indian port staff is majorly composed of the generation Y (Banerjee and Gupta, 2013). Therefore, they are more open to the changes in port infrastructure and introduction of new port technology.
Table 3: Response according to age
Age Frequency Valid Percent
20-30 23 32.9
30-40 31 44.3
40-50 11 15.7
>50 5 7.1
Total 70 100.0

5.3 Response according to the impact of the government on new port development
The aim of this question was to determine whether the government had impacted on new port development in India port sector. Comparing this responses with the secondary data will enable the researcher to identify the impact of the government on new port development. A majority of the respondents (42.9%) strongly agreed that the government has impacted on new port development. 25.7% agree, 15.7% had neutral feelings, 8.6% disagree while 7.1% strongly disagreed. The high number of respondents who strongly agree plus those who agree may be the ones who handle cargo and have experienced port traffic and thus appreciate the government initiatives to develop new ports. According to the secondary data, demand for goods has resulted in huge volumes of cargo in turn leading to high traffic in ports (Kirubakaran, 2010). Some major ports such as the ones studied (Mumbai and JNPT) can no longer be expanded further and that is why the government has opted to develop new ports to ease traffic in this ports. According to Sanchez,Ng and Garcia-Alonso (2011), the total traffic handled at Mumbai Port increased from 27063 thousand tonnes in 200-01 to 59184 thousand tonnes in 2013-14. Similarly,Kirubakaran (2010) posits that JNPT accounts for more than half of the total container capacity thus resulting in high traffic. Therefore, the development of new ports that is currently underway is a major booster. The neutral respondents may be staff from other sectors that have not been affected in any way by development of new ports. Therefore, they have not really felt the government initiatives to develop new ports. Those who disagree or disagree are also small in number and can be said to be new staff who have not worked for long with the port sector and as such are not very versed with port issues and do not view the importance of new port development.

Table 4: Response according to the impact of the government on new port development

Frequency Valid Percent
strongly disagree 5 7.1
disagree 6 8.6
neutral 11 15.7
Agree 18 25.7
strongly agree 30 42.9
Total 70 100.0

5.4 Response according to whether the government policy of 100% FDI in automatic route has improved port infrastructure
The researcher was interested in determining whether the government policy of 100% FDI has helped to improve infrastructure in the Indian port sector. Most of the respondents strongly agree (38.6%) and agree (28.6%) that the government policies on FDI have improved port infrastructure. 17.1% had neutral response, 8.6% disagreed and 7.1 strongly disagreed. The table below presents the responses.

Table 5: Response according to whether the government policy of 100% FDI in automatic route has improved port infrastructure
Frequency Valid Percent
Strongly disagree 5 7.1
disagree 6 8.6
Neutral 12 17.1
agree 20 28.6
strongly agree 27 38.6
Total 70 100.0

According to Kirubakaran (2010), there are ongoing government projects that have attracted FDI in both Mumbai and JNPT port. For example, construction of a road from JNPT to Mumbai was initiated in July 2016 to enhance a smooth flow of cargo. Kirubakaran (2010) also contends that favourable investment climate, strong potential for growth and sops that have been provided by the Indian government have promoted both domestic and foreign players to enter India’s port sector. The fact that a majority of respondents strongly agree that foreign investment has helped to improve infrastructure also shows that this government policy is advantageous to the port sector. As stated earlier, most of the staff are generation Y and this also implies that a majority have readily adopted the new changes in infrastructure (Mansouri, Sauser and Boardman, 2009). The small portion who strongly disagree are most likely to be those above 50 who are reluctant to adapt to new organizational and physical structures and as such may not see their vitality in the port sector.
5.5 Response according to the impact of the government on port modernization
The researcher was interested in finding out what how the port staff thought about the governments’ initiatives to modernize Indian ports. 47.1% strongly agree, 24.3% agree, 14.3% were neutral, 10% disagree and 4.3% strongly disagree. The researcher found out that the government as greatly impacted on modernizing ports. The studied ports have been modernized with recent infrastructure and technology. This implies better and larger container vessels, new terminals and improved cargo containerization. Furthermore, both JNPT and Mumbai Port use the latest technological solutions in handling port activities such as RFDI. The table below shows the degree to which the respondents agreed with this question.
Table 6: Response according to the impact of the government on port modernization
Frequency Valid Percent
strongly disagree 3 4.3
disagree 7 10.0
neutral 10 14.3
agree 17 24.3
strongly agree 33 47.1
Total 70 100.0

5.6 Response on factors that limit the growth of the Indian port sector
The researcher was interested in determining the factors that limit growth of the Indian port sector. Participants were to state their level of agreement or disagreement with port traffic, port technology, ownership by the government, Inadequate cargo-handling equipment and machinery and Inefficiency due to poor hinterland connectivity through Indian ports. For port traffic, 40% strongly agree, 28.6% agree, 12.9% were neutral, 10% disagree and 8.6% strongly disagreed as shown in the table below.
Table 7: Response on factors that limit the growth of the Indian port sector
Frequency Valid Percent
strongly disagree 6 8.6
disagree 7 10.0
neutral 9 12.9
agree 20 28.6
strongly agree 28 40.0
Total 70 100.0
Concerning poor technology in the port sector. 54.3% strongly agree, 22.9% agree, 15.7% felt neutral, 4.3% disagree and 2.9% strongly disagree. This is illustrated in the table below.
Table 8: Response on poor technology in the port sector
Frequency Valid Percent
strongly disagree 2 2.9
disagree 3 4.3
neutral 11 15.7
agree 16 22.9
strongly agree 38 54.3
Total 70 100.0
For ownership by the government, 41.4% strongly agree and 44.3% agree, 10% were neutral and 2.9% disagree while 1.4% strongly disagreed as represented below.
Table 9: Response on ownership by the government
Frequency Valid Percent
strongly disagree 1 1.4
disagree 2 2.9
neutral 7 10.0
agree 31 44.3
strongly agree 29 41.4
Total 70 100.0
Responses of the factor of inadequate cargo-handling and machinery were 21.4% for strongly agree, 35.7% for agree, 18.6% for neutral, 14.3% for disagree and 10% for strongly agree as shown below.
Table 10: Response on inadequate cargo-handling and machinery
Frequency Valid Percent
strongly disagree 7 10.0
disagree 10 14.3
neutral 13 18.6
agree 25 35.7
Strongly agree 15 21.4
Total 70 100.0
Responses on inefficiency due to poor connectivity through ports were 31.4% for those who strongly agree, 25.7% agreed, 18.6% felt neutral while 12.9% disagreed and 11.4% strongly disagreed.
Table 11: Responses on inefficiency due to poor connectivity through ports
Frequency Valid Percent
strongly disagree 8 11.4
disagree 9 12.9
neutral 13 18.6
agree 18 25.7
strongly agree 22 31.4
Total 70 100.0

Information that was collected from the face to face interviews is presented in this section. The analysis is done based on the responses from the interviewees. The researcher used the letters A, B, C and E as the identities of the respondents. Letters were used to conceal identity so as to ensue confidentiality and privacy of responses obtained from the respondents.
5.1 Interviewee profile
Interviewee Gender Occupation Experience in the Organization Age
A Female Cargo handling manager 6 years 33
B Male Marine Engineer 7 years 30
C Male Naval Architect 4 years 27
E Female Shipbuilding engineer 6 years 35
Table 12: Interviewee profile
5.2 Response on the challenges and opportunities in the Indian Port Sector
According to respondent A, the Indian port sector HAS low productivity and few road connections within the port area. Respondent B said that “the main challenge facing our ports is the over dominance by the government and the lack of equipment to handle large volumes of cargo.” As per respondent C, India port sector has very few trained labour and skilled employees. E said that there is inadequate navigational aids. All the respondents agreed that lack of latest technology is a major challenge facing the Indian ports. The response given by the interviewees all correspond to the literature review. According to the literature, India has poor roads connecting to the ports and his causes delays which slow down production (Haralambides and Gujar, 2012). B’s response is also similar to the findings of research by Deloche (1983) which showed that most of the Indian ports are owned by the government and this slows down the decision making process of major projects. Also as B said equipment at the Indian ports can only handle small cargo capacity and as such it is unable to meet the accelerating growth in international trade that demands for more volume of cargo. As said by C, very few employees in the Indian sector are trained or skilled, as such, they do not have the necessary skills required to handle new technology and infrastructure and this further slows down production. Mandal, Roychowdhury and Biswas(2016) posit that it is indeed true that India has very few navigation aids (fog signals, buoys, lighthouses and day beacons). The consequences of this is increased risk of accident occurrence (Mandal, Roychowdhury and Biswas, 2016).
In response to the opportunities in the Indian port sector A said that the sector has a very high potential; to attract foreign investors. According to Haralambides and Behrens (2000),India has the opportunity to partner with foreign companies if it improves its infrastructure. Improvement of infrastructure will make the sector attractive to investors. B contented that India has the opportunity to build its own transhipment hub. As per the literature, India depends on Singapore and Colombo transhipment hub and this causes the sector to incur further costs. Therefore, building a hub in the southern tip between the East and West Trade centres will be of benefit as proposed by the government. With the current policy on 100% FDI in the port sector, C stated that India can use this opportunity to expand the capacity at major ports. The current major ports are congested as they cannot handle large cargo and experience high traffic slows down production. E responded that the best available opportunity for India is to partner with foreign nations to allow for benchmarking in order to acquire the necessary knowledge and skills required to improve the port sector.
5.3 Respondents view on the government policy of 100% FDI in the port sector
Respondent A said that the FDI policy will help to improve the current old infrastructure in most Indian ports. As per the secondary analysis, the government is already implementing this by using the inward FDI for modern cargo handling facilities and also for improving the conditions of existing ports (Panigrahi and Pradhan, 2012). Obsolete infrastructure in the Indian ports has led to inefficiencies in the daily port operations such as cargo handling. Furthermore, the infrastructure cannot support large vessels despite the current demand for transportation of large volumes of cargo. Through FDI, which will be obtained from joint ventures, foreign companies can easily introduce and recommend modern infrastructure to the domestic companies (Haralambides and Behrens, 2000). Respondent B, on the other hand views that FDI will increase the international presence of the Indian port sector. This is because most companies will be investing in India and this will increase their recognition in international trade (Panigrahi and Pradhan, 2012). The advantages of international presence as per Nadkarni (2006) are a diversification of the revenue stream, increase on return capital and increased productivity. B also added that FDI will be used to improve the poor connectivity at the port sector. The roads leading to ports in India are still very poor and the railways which are the main transport system that connect with water transport are very few resulting in high traffic in ports. The size of vessels is increasing dramatically and this demands for environmentally sound and efficient transport by expanding port facilities and improving infrastructure in railways and road that lead to the airport. Therefore, the government plans to connect roads, railways and marine transport will promote a smooth flow of goods to and from the port sector.
According to respondent C and E, FDI is vital because it will enable the port sector to acquire the latest technological skills from the foreign companies. It has been argued by Nadkarni(2006) that lack of foreign relationships delays the adoption of modern technological skills. Therefore, engaging with foreign investors can expose he port sector to the current technology used in marine industry. For example, the Indian government has implemented the use of technological solutions such as RFID in the port sector. Additionally, according to the modernization theory, ‘traditional’ or ‘pre-modern’ nations and in this case, the Indian port sector can become modernised by modelling the practises used by the modernised economies. Furthermore, all the respondents shared similar views of the fact that FDI will be beneficial in training the unskilled staff and untrained labour. FDI entails creation of a relationship with multinational companies and as earlier stated, such ventures result in transfer of technology and skills. As such, it is only imperative that the untrained labour be trained on how to handle the modern infrastructure while the rest of the staff be mentored on how to use the recent shipping technology.
5.4 Responses on the impact of government initiatives to modernize ports
On responses on the impact of the government initiatives on port modernization, respondent A stated that this move will help to enhance the mechanization in both major and minor ports. A’s view can be backed up by India and Analysis (2017)reports on the low capacity equipment used at many berths in India. These equipment are mostly worn out and were traditionally designed to meet the productivity at that particular time. With the current increase in production, this old equipment which are also poorly maintained are unable to meet the increased growth. Therefore, modernization of ports will help to replace this old machinery with modern ones. B and E shared views on the fact that port modernization initiatives by the government will enhance draft. It is evident that most Indian ports have low drafts which cannot be equated to the current increase in shapes and sizes of ships. Although the average draft ranges between 12-14 meters, a majority of ports worldwide have increased their draft up to 23 metres (, 2017). This increased height allows the ports to handle the new vessels that have a capacity of 15,000 TEUs (, 2017). Therefore, the efforts of the government of India to modernize ports will help them to be at par with the recent developments in the world maritime industry. Respondent C stated that port modernization will enable the Indian government to develop new terminals. The current infrastructure does not allow the existing ports to handle high traffic. Therefore, modernizing this ports will enable new berths and terminals to be built. The government has already initiated plans on this whereby a coastal berth is being built at Kandla to handle fertilizer and food grains.
5.5 Respondents view on whether the government’s plan to develop new ports will help the port industry
Respondent A asserted that the government initiatives to develop Indian ports will help to reduce the current volume congestion. From the literature review and secondary analysis, it can be stated that high capacity increases traffic at the port sector because it implies use of limited resources to handle huge values of cargo. Therefore, developing new ports as per A is the only way to clear this saturation. According to Nadkarni (2006) major ports in India have reached the maximum capacity for expansion implying that it is impossible to expand them further, as such, developing new ports will allow for distribution of this volume of cargo and ultimately reduce traffic. Respondents B, C and E view the government’s plan to modernise new ports as a way of making ports more available. From the literature review, there are many strategic positions at the Indian port sector that can be used to develop new ports, most cargo is usually forced to travel for long distances to access the port and this consumes both time and adds to the cost incurred in handling cargo. Therefore, creating more ports can help to increase the points for cargo handling, or cargo lifting and offloading. Respondent E also stated that the government initiative to develop new ports will impact on the sector by reducing the costs incurred in using Singapore and Colombo trasnsshipment hub. According to the secondary analysis, India a lacks a transhipment hub. Therefore new port development initiatives by the government will enable India to have its own trasshipment hub at its Southern tip. C also contended that with the 100% FDI, it is only logic that the government develops new ports in order to attract more investors. Furthermore, India has one of the largest coastline and development of new ports is one way of taking advantage of this. All the respondents also agreed that development of new ports is an opportunity for India to introduce and exercise modern infrastructure and recent technology. This is true as per Kirubakaran (2010) who argues that India can take advantage of this development by using latest technology in developing this ports which will even be better than modernization of ports. Besides that, new port development will enable India to source the best and most modern infrastructure for its new ports (, 2017).
5.6 Response according to how has the government impacted on you port
Respondents A and E who came from similar ports, the Port of Mumbai gave similar responses on the government impact on their ports. Both respondents agreed that the government has impacted on development of automatic gate, improvement of infrastructure and cargo handling facilities and the use of new technological systems. Safaei (2003) also contends that the government has implemented the development of gate automation which will enable traffic to be controlled through computer systems. Respondent B and C stated that the government plans to connect ports with inland waterways at JNPT port, has improved connectivity at JNPT, introduced technological solutions and enhanced drafts. All the respondents also contended on the 100% FDI in their ports and how there has been increased foreign investments. As per respondent B and C, JNPT, which is India’s largest container handling port signed an agreement with State Bank of India to improve the infrastructure that is required to increase its capacity. The government as per C is also underway in building a satellite port at Wadhwan that will help to ease congestion of ships at JNPT. C also stated that the government is building a new terminal at their port (JNPT).
5.7 Chapter summary
According to the findings from the interviews and questionnaires, most respondents agree that the government has impact of infrastructure, modernization of ports and the development of new ports in India. However, respondents also view port traffic and old infrastructure as the main factors limiting the Indian Port Sector.