Supplemental Questions for a Administative Assistant

Supplemental Questions for a Administative Assistant

Add Supplemental Questions form has been opened. Describe your experience coordinating office functions in a complex office structure, including your experience in handling complicated technical questions, training and directing the work of others, supporting administrative functions, and communicating in a clear concise manner.

02

Describe your experience in the following areas: a) Reception and customer service skills; b) Records management; and c) Generating reports after extracting data from a variety of sources.

03

Describe your current and previous work experience in interpreting and learning laws, regulations, and policies and your specific role in communicating and applying them in the workplace. Include in your discussion examples of how you have analyzed difficult situations and what actions you took.

04

Describe your experience working with budgets, purchasing, or payroll. Have you ever tracked and monitored a budget with specific funding restrictions? If so, what kind of budget was it, how much detail were you responsible for, and how much money was involved?

05

Please describe in detail your computer background. Be specific and thorough. Include any experience with Windows, Word, Excel, Access, PowerPoint and HTML, and describe how you applied each. If you have experience with web pages and creating flyers, please specify. Include any special or customized programs you have used.

06

If you are bilingual in English and Spanish, describe your reading, writing, and speaking proficiency in Spanish.

07

Describe your experience working with or serving individuals from diverse cultural or ethnic backgrounds and what you learned from the experience. Give specific examples.

HSN701 Principles of Nutrition T3 2017 – Assignment

HSN701 Principles of Nutrition T3 2017 – Assignment
Requirements: Written report (2000 words) plus a 1 minute video summary
Assignment Due: Thursday 11 January by 11:59pm (Melbourne Time)
Assessment weighting: Written report: worth 35% of your final unit grade. Video summary:
worth 5% of your final unit grade
Assignment details
The purpose of this assignment is to:
• become familiar with an emerging, topical and relevant nutritional issue in Australia;
• learn to search for, and critique, peer-reviewed scientific literature; • assist in developing your nutrition communication skills.
You have been employed as a nutrition consultant by a food company that is interested in adding new ingredients to their current range of infant formulae. The ingredients in question are oligosaccharides which include galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) and fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), which are intended to simulate oligosaccharides naturally found in breast milk. There is some clinical evidence that these oligosaccharides may assist with the health and wellbeing of infants so they could be an important marketing differential from products made by other companies which don’t contain oligosaccharides.
The title of your report should be: Oligosaccharides: the case for and against the supplementation of infant formula
The following points need to be covered at some stage in your report:
1. What is the role of oligosaccharides such as galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) and fructooligosaccharides (FOS) in the health and wellbeing of infants and indicate if there are any potential safety issues that may determine upper limits of addition to infant formulas?
2. Outline the weight of scientific evidence for a clinical benefit of oligosaccharide supplementation on infant health and wellbeing compared to formula without oligosaccharides. For this part, you need to take into account both positive (studies that show a benefit) and negative research (studies that didn’t show a benefit) and use the literature to develop an argument to inform your conclusion in part 3.
– If evidence is coming from large-scale long-term human randomised-controlled trials (RCTs) then this would be considered stronger evidence than studies conducted in animals or from observational research (such as cohort, case-control or cross-sectional studies).
– Evidence from systematic reviews and/or meta-analyses of RCTs are generally considered to be the highest form of evidence.
– Almost all the references for your report should be coming from peer-reviewed scientific studies. If you mostly use websites as references then expect to be heavily marked down.
– You may need to consider different categories of infants (e.g. term vs pre-term infants) in considering the weight of evidence, but this would be your decision.
– You may want to consider whether these ingredients are permitted in infant formulas in Australia and in overseas markets and investigate the regulatory and/or scientific rationale for their additional.
3. Include a brief summary/final recommendation to the company which is supported by your analysis presented in part 2.
4. Your employer has asked you to summarise your main findings and recommendations from your report for a brief presentation to the company board. The board meets interstate, so you have been asked to record a one minute video summarising your recommendation of whether or not to add oligosaccharides to the infant formula, and the key points of your rationale.
Please note: this assignment is about comparing the merits of oligosaccharide supplemented versus unsupplemented infant formula. It is NOT about the merits of breastfeeding compared to formula feeding though you may include some discussion on this as a means of background, but breastfeeding should not be the focus of your article.
Assignment submission requirements
Your written report can be submitted in either a Word or PDF file format. Your video summary needs to be in a MP4 format. Each file needs to go into its own assignment dropbox.
How to upload your assignment on CloudDeakin
You are able to submit the assignment up until 11:59pm (Melbourne time) on the due date – assignments submitted after this time without an approved extension will incur late penalties. To submit your assignment, follow the steps below.
1. Click on Assignments (Dropbox) of this unit’s CloudDeakin site which can be found in the menu under the Assessment tab
2. Click on the hyperlink for the assignment that you wish to submit
3. On the next screen, you only need to click on the Add a File button and then browse to where your assignment is from the Upload button and then click the Add button on the bottom of the screen.
4. Once you can see your file has been added directly under the Add a File button, you can click the
Submit button on the bottom right-hand of the screen (there is no need to add any text to the Comments box)
After getting to the confirmation screen, please resist the temptation to send me an email ‘just to check I got your assignment’ as you can always go back into the assignment dropbox screen and your submission will be able to be viewed by clicking on the number in the ‘Submissions’ column.
I’ve submitted my assignment early and now would like to make changes to it and upload a new version before the due date: can I do this?
Yes, the upload system is set to allow you to upload a new submission which will overwrite (erase) what was there previously. It doesn’t matter what file name you give the revised assignment, it will still overwrite the previous submission. I only process the assignments after the due date has passed so you can upload as many versions as you like prior to the due date
Preparing the written report
Your written report can be presented in any format you choose that would be appropriate for a professional report so you have some scope for creativity and layout, although it is mainly the scientific content you will be assessed on as per the marking criteria following.
Your written report should have a logical flow and be written at the level for health professionals and include supporting evidence from a minimum of seven original published studies (research articles and review papers are both acceptable) which are cited in the text and listed in a reference section at the end of the article. Only cite references from Internet sources and non-peer-reviewed literature if there is a strong reason to do so such as websites from government departments or reputable health bodies which contain original data or reports.
Required information on the first page of the written report: Your name, student ID and word count.
Use the Marking Criteria following to guide how much detail is expected for each part of the assignment based on the word limit. There are a total of 40 marks available for the written report and it counts towards 35% of your overall final unit grade.
Word Limit: 2000 words (not including the reference section, in-text references, headings and subheadings, tables, and figure/photo legends). The word count maximum means just that – there is no ‘10% over’ allowance rule. Any assignment exceeding the word limit of 1500 words, even by one word, will receive a marking deduction. The strict word limit is in place to ensure equity in assessment between students as marking of the assignment allows for the realistic depth a person can go into within the word limit.
Penalty for exceeding 2000 words maximum:
• 1-100 words over: 2 marks
• 101-200 words over: 4 marks
• 201-300 words over: 6 marks
• 301 words over: 8 marks
Assessment
Criteria
Excelled /Above expectations
Achieved/Reached standard
Below Standard
4 – 5 marks 2.5 – 3 marks
Clear and concise Generally clear and
Role of identification of the concise identification of
oligosaccharides role of the role of
in Infant Health oligosaccharides in oligosaccharides in the
and Wellness health and wellness health and wellness of
of infants infants 0 – 2 marks
Poor or no identification of the role of
oligosaccharides in the
health and wellness of
infants
4 – 5 marks 2.5 – 3 marks
Consideration of
Thorough and Generally accurate
any safety issues accurate description description of safety and
and dosage of safety and dose dose consideration of 0 – 2 marks
Poor or no description of safety and dose consideration of
related to consideration of oligosaccharide addition oligosaccharide addition
oligosaccharide oligosaccharide to infant formula to infant formula
addition to infant
addition to infant
formula formula
Assessment
Criteria Excelled /Above expectations Achieved/Reached standard Below Standard
7 – 10 marks
Sound, logical argument either
supporting or not
Infant Formula supporting the use of
Supplementation oligosaccharide supplemented
formula over nonsupplemented
formula in infants
5 – 6 marks Generally logical argument either
supporting or not
supporting the use of oligosaccharide
supplemented formula
over non-supplemented formula in infants
0 – 4 marks Poor or illogical argument either
supporting or not
supporting the use of oligosaccharide
supplemented formula
over non-supplemented formula in infants
7 – 10 marks
Excellent supporting
Infant Formula
evidence for the
Supplementation recommendation with
– Evidence and thorough critique of
Critique the positive and negative literature 5 – 6 marks
Generally provides supporting evidence for the recommendation
with reasonable critique of the positive and negative literature 0 – 4 marks
Sparse use of supporting evidence for the recommendation
with little or no critique of the positive and negative literature
4 – 5 marks
Final recommendation for whether
Infant Formula supplementation
Supplementation
should or should not

occur supported by
Recommendation previously presented argument and evidence 2.5 – 3 mark
Not complete and/or adequate final
recommendation for whether supplementation should or should not occur
supported by previously
presented argument and
evidence 0 – 2 marks
No final recommendation for whether supplementation should
or should not occur or not satisfactorily
4 – 5 marks
Consistent use of appropriate scientific
Clarity of Writing writing and referencing style
suitable for health professionals 2.5 – 3 marks
Generally uses appropriate scientific
writing and referencing
style suitable for health professionals 0 – 2 marks
Inappropriate writing style and referencing
which is unsuitable for health professionals
Overall Mark 30 to 40 20 or 24 0 to 16
Turnitin originality check
Your assignment will be checked by electronic means through the Turnitin Originality Check for the purposes of detecting plagiarism against current and archived Internet material, and journal publications. You can find the check tool in the More link in the unit toolbar next to the Assessment option or through the Get Help Learning box on the right-hand side of the screen in a green box on the unit home page. For the Originality Report, you can elect to exclude the bibliography section which can give an artificially high originality report.
The Turnitin Originality Check is not for submission of the final version of your assignment; that should be submitted through the assignment dropbox.
Having a few words or phrases come up in the plagiarism report is a non-issue – having entire paragraphs word-for-word marked as being identical to a journal or Internet source is an issue.
Paraphrasing and referencing should always be your writing aim.
As for ‘what percentage figure is too high in the originality report?” – I don’t give a figure for this as it can be so variable. A report can have a very high percentage if you do not exclude the reference section from the check, but has no bearing on an assessment of plagiarism.
What you need to look at in the originality report is what is being picked up: is it just repeated words or lots of very short phrases, or is it entire sentences and paragraphs being flagged? Both can give rise to identical percentage figures in the final originality report, but only the second issue of sentences and paragraphs being identical to online/journal sources raises plagiarism issues. All your work should be paraphrased, not repeated or quoted verbatim from the source even when citing a reference – -quoting- shows a very low level of insight in scientific writing.
Preparing the video summary
The purpose of this part of the assignment is to:
– Assist in developing your verbal communication skills for the nutrition discipline; – Assist in developing your ability to summarise information and identify key points; – Assist in developing your skills in technology use (digital literacy).
The time limit for the recording is one minute. In this presentation, you are not being assessed on how much information you can get through in a minute, but on your choice of relevant key points to present, and on your clarity and manner of presenting these. There are a total of 18 marks available for the video summary report and it counts towards 5% of your overall final unit grade.
There are a number of different options for creating a recorded video presentation – you can use your phone video camera, iPad or tablet, a dedicated video camera or a computer web cam. You are NOT expected to produce a professional-quality video in regards to image, sound quality, lighting and so on. I am not expecting you to be a multimedia production expert, only to make use of common tools available to make videos of ‘home’ quality.
Your video needs to be uploaded in a MP4 format which ensures small file sizes and compatibility at the assessment end that your presentation can be viewed. If your recording device cannot output in MP4 format, then I highly recommend the free and simple-to-use file conversion program HandBrake which will do the job easily. See the next page for the simple instructions on how to use HandBrake.
Assessment
Criteria
Excelled /Above expectations
Achieved/Reached standard
Below Standard
Content 5 – 6 marks 3 – 4 marks
Strong connection between Recommendation and rationale stated recommendation and stated but not clearly connected, presented rationale. or too much time describing
Rationale reflects high level recommendation without interpretation and sufficient rationale, or not most
discernment of key evidence relevant rationale 0 – 2 marks
Not adequately covered
Professionalism 5 – 6 marks 3 – 4 marks
Entirely appropriate for board Mostly appropriate for board presentation. Clear image presentation. Adequate image and audio. Consistent and audio. Displays some
positive engagement towards interest towards topic presented topic. Leaves the listener
motivated and interested in learning more about the topic 0 – 2 marks
Unprofessional in all areas
Communication 5 – 6 marks 3 – 4 mark
Clear voice, words clearly Voice not clear at times, listener articulated, and language finds it difficult to understand at
entirely appropriate for times, language not appropriate
intelligent but non-specialist for audience
audience 0 – 2 marks
Poor communication skills in all areas
Overall Mark 15 to 18 9 or 12 0 to 6
Converting video files to MP4 format with HandBrake
HandBrake is a free, open-source tool for converting video from nearly any format to a selection of modern, widely supported codecs which includes MP4. It is useful for converting and compressing video footage or movies into other, smaller formats to suit many different devices. You can download it from http://handbrake.fr/ PC, Mac and Ubuntu versions are available.
Even if you already have an MP4 output, running it through HandBrake can make it even smaller which will help with the upload time at assignment submission deadline.
When you open the program, you will see the open window shown in the screenshot following.
1. Click on Source and choose the folder where your file is or alternatively, just drag the file you want to covert straight onto any place on the open window.
2. Next choose what device you want to covert the file for. In this case, please choose Universal.
3. Click the Browse button and select the location where you want to save your converted file and the name you wish to give to the converted file
4. Check to make sure Mp4 is selected in the Container option.
5. Finally hit Start and the conversion will begin. For a short, one minute video, the process should only take a couple of minutes.
Researching the assignment
Useful resources for this assignment include your Study Guide and textbook for initial background information. A good free website to access Medline to search peer-reviewed medical journals is
PubMed http://ift.tt/1QrGjZN You can search for full text articles on Medline through the
Deakin University library website http://ift.tt/2ztyZLZ
You may find the use of a medical dictionary helpful. A good online medical dictionary is MedTerms http://ift.tt/1lYluZ6
Information you find on the Internet for this assignment should be treated with caution and should always be able to be verified through the mainstream scientific literature. If you can’t source claims or information on the Internet back through the scientific literature then you may be just getting one person’s or company’s opinion. Internet sites or companies with a vested commercial interest in selling a product or service are NOT to be considered reputable sites for unbiased and balanced scientific evidence.
What’s the difference between searching PubMed and using Medline on the Deakin library website?
Even though PubMed http://ift.tt/1QrGjZN is a free-access Medline search engine, it is perfectly fine to be using for medical, biological sciences and nutrition research article searching for all your university studies. In fact it is what most of the academics in the School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences use on a daily basis so don’t feel you need to use EBSCOhost through the Deakin library to access Medline.
PubMed covers far more journals than the library’s full-text Medline database as the Deakin Medline database only searches journals that it has full-text access for (about 2,100) while PubMed doesn’t make this discrimination as it covers all 5,000 journals in the full Medline database.
If you find an article of interest on PubMed, you can then search the Deakin library to see if they subscribe to the journal in electronic or hardcopy form. You can also search from here http://ift.tt/2zqTpFn to see a list of eJournals Deakin subscribes to.
I’ve found a great article on PubMed, but Deakin doesn’t have a subscription to the journal: what do I do?
When searching articles through PubMed you can always see the abstract; however, links to the full article normally (though not always) ask you to pay for the paper if you (or your university) don’t have a subscription to the journal.
If you find that Deakin’s eJournal subscription does not have the journal you are after, then if you have a friend at another university you can ask them to get you a copy if their university subscribes to that journal. If that fails, then don’t be afraid of sending a polite e-mail request to one of the authors of the paper (Googling their name and institution normally gets you their email easily enough) and request an electronic PDF copy as more-often-than-not you can expect a positive response – researchers are usually happy to share their work with students.
Referencing requirements
You are free to use any standard referencing system used in other subjects or field of study (e.g.
Vancouver, Harvard or APA). The referencing system preferred for this assignment though is the Vancouver system which uses in-text numbering for each reference and a numerical order bibliography though you will NOT be penalised if you choose to use Harvard or APA.
The Vancouver system is by far the most common style used in scientific journals, and is also one of the simplest to use. The Vancouver system also assists with readability of text by not having paragraphs full of author names disrupting the flow of the text.
The two main types of referencing systems use either in-text author-date citations and then an alphabetical list of authors in the bibliography section or in-text numbering and a numerical list of references in the bibliography section. You should not mix the styles i.e. if you use in-text author-date names then you DO NOT number the references in the bibliography – you list the references in alphabetical order. Likewise, if you use in-text numbering, you DO NOT attempt to sort your reference list in alphabetical order.
Some help on referencing styles is here: http://ift.tt/1ebsH7R
In your article you should always avoid quoting directly from papers as it shows very little insight e.g. Crowe et al. have stated, “Blah, blah, blah….”. You should always paraphrase the text in your own words and then cite the reference. It is NOT plagiarising to paraphrase someone else’s conclusion or views if you then reference this.
How to correctly reference articles you find on PubMed
Papers that you find on PubMed are referenced according to their journal reference – you DO NOT reference the website link to PubMed or weblink to the abstract that you find in your PubMed search.
Referencing articles cited within a paper
If when reading a paper you come across a research study that you feel on its own is important for your assignment, then you need to obtain this original research paper and then reference it directly. You do not under any circumstances reference the paper that first made reference to the article as that is a secondary source – it is akin to referencing ‘Deakin Library’ as your reference rather than the book that you borrowed from it! If on the other hand you are writing about the conclusions of a review paper, you only need to reference the review paper, not all the articles that went into writing it and forming the conclusions from it.
How recent do my references need to be?
While there is no hard-and-fast rule about the cut-off for the year of publication that articles should be used from, once research papers are around 10 years old they may not be as suitable. This is not to say that there is anything wrong with the research at all, it is still just as valid – it is just that research and knowledge in an area should be advancing so recent studies build on the work of previous ones and likely are more important to be reading and citing in your assignment. You can use references older than 10 years, but most of your references should have been published in around the last 10 years.
Endnote software
The University makes available to all students, free of charge, Endnote database software which provides an electronic referencing system, covering all recommended referencing styles. Endnote will save you considerable amounts of time in completing the referencing for your assignments, and ensure that you are citing and listing references in the correct manner.
If you haven’t used it before, it is well worth exploring using Endnote to help with your referencing as it has the potential to save you a lot of time if applied across all of your university assignments. Once a reference is entered into Endnote, you can format it in a Word document in any style you like at the click of a button, plus references included in the text are automatically updated as you edit the document.
Endnote is available for downloaded from the university’s software library
http://ift.tt/2zskDvi it is located in the Teaching and Learning section of this webpage. The Library has on-line tutorials on how to install and use Endnote here http://ift.tt/2BplZZ4

ECON11026 Assessment 3- Take Home Paper- Case Study

ECON11026 Assessment 3- Take Home Paper- Case Study
Due date: Friday 10 February 2017 (Week 12- Term 3) ASSESSMENT
Weighting: 40% weighting (5 marks for in-text referencing
& reference list, presentation, clarity of explanation and evidence of reading and research, original thinking backed by research supporting your arguments)
Length: Approximately 2500 -3000 words
Case Study is based on topics covering weeks 3
7-11
Objectives
This assessment item relates to course learning outcomes 6 to 7 as listed in the course profile.
Tasks to be undertaken in this Assignment:
• You should have a good understanding of macroeconomic objectives, economic growth, demandside policies including fiscal policy, taxation and budget stances. Refer to relevant chapters from the set textbook or any other economics textbook.
• Carefully read the ABC News article on – MYEFO Budget Deficit forecast.
• Make notes on the main factors affecting the Federal Government’s budget bottom line. Making notes will help you to answer the questions by applying the theory to real life example of economics at work.
• Conduct research (Click “View MYEFO documents” to get more details about the Government’s fiscal position and find related reports and search the Budget website: http://www.budget.gov.au/2015-16/content/myefo/html/index.htm) relevant to the issue. Research on the major expenditure categories of the Federal Government. Find out why generally a surplus budget is preferred to a deficit budget. Also read articles related to problems of deepening budget deficits, low economic growth, taxation reforms, rising unemployment rate and ageing population to enhance the quality of their response.
• You may present additional information using tables, graphs etc. to show current rates of economic growth, unemployment rate and the level of taxation to draw conclusions and justify your answers. Visit ABS website for latest macroeconomic indicators: http://www.abs.gov.au. However, theorybased analysis is what is required rather than presenting information.
• Apply the DADA framework (Definitions, Assumptions, Diagrams and Analysis) while answering the questions. On-campus students will be attempting some exercises in the classroom. Off-campus students should attempt weekly activities from the textbook boxed case studies. These exercises will help and guide your response.
• NOTE: Students should answer the questions in an essay format. In preparing your assignment, you need to ensure that you refer to the “essay writing guide for students studying economics” available on the course website in Moodle. It is important that you interpret the question clearly, use diagrams and tables from secondary sources and apply what you learnt in the class to real world economic examples. You can use sub-headings if you want to.
• CQUniversity takes plagiarism seriously. Your Turnitin similarity index should be low. Make sure you include in-text references and provide a reference list. Contact Academic Learning Centre (ALC) if you need help with essay writing, paraphrasing and referencing. The School of Business and Law uses APA referencing style.
MYEFO: Budget deficit increases to $37b as Government releases economic update
By political reporter Naomi Woodley and Stephanie Anderson, ABC News
Updated 15 Dec 2015, 6:56pm
Health, welfare and aged care are facing combined cuts of more than $3.7 billion as the Federal Government faces down a deficit stretching beyond the end of the decade.
Main points
• Deficit: $37.4b in 2015-16, $33.7b in 2016-17, $23b in 2017-18, $14.2b in 201819
• Iron ore price: Revised down from US $48 per tonne to US $39 per tonne
• GDP: Downgraded to 2.5 per cent, growing to 2.75 per cent in 2016-17
But counter-terror measures and border protection duties gained millions of dollars in additional funding as part of the Mid-Year Economic and Fiscal Outlook (MYEFO), released today.
Savings
• $2b over 4 years by cracking down on welfare compliance
• $650m over 4 years by removing bulk billing incentives for pathology services & reducing the incentive for MRI services
• $595m over 4 years from health workforce programs
• $472m over 3 years from Aged Care funding
• $441m over 4 years by means testing the Child Care subsidy for families earning more than $250,000
The federal budget deficit has increased to $37.4 billion, with a $2.3 billion deterioration in the forecast deficit for 2015-16 since the budget in May.
The Government is also predicting deficits to be a total of $23.8 billion worse over the three years from 2016-17 than first estimated in the budget.
Treasurer Scott Morrison said the journey to budget balance needed to be -safe and careful- with the expected date to return to surplus pushed back another year to 2020-21.
Using the metaphor of the Christmas car trip, he said he expected a lot of Australians to ask -are we there yet?-.
-We need to take a safe and careful route and one does not put at risk our jobs and growth,- he said.
-We are not going to take detours or short cuts. We are not going to put the safety of the passengers at risk. Those passengers are growth and jobs of Australians.-
The Government has committed over $3.5 billion in extra spending since the May budget, including the $1.1 billion innovation package, $909 million to re-settle an extra 12,000 Syrian refugees, $1.1 billion in extra roads funding and $621 million for new pharmaceutical subsidies.
The Government said it had -more than offset- the extra spending with new savings measures.
Targeting more people who incorrectly claim welfare payments will save $2 billion over four years to 2018-19.
A range of changes to bulk billing incentives for pathology services, diagnostic imaging and MRI services will save $650 million over four years.
Health workforce programs will be cut by $595m over four years.
The Government will cut $472 million from aged care services over three years by -better aligning- funding claimed by providers to the level of care actually provided.
The previously announced change to the childcare subsidy, to reduce the payment for families earning more than $250,000 will contribute to savings of $441 million over four years.
90pc of budget measures passed: Cormann
Finance Minister Mathias Cormann said he and Mr Morrison were expecting some changes to be made to planned savings through negotiations with the Senate.
Senator Cormann said the Government had already made -significant progress- in passing budget measures through the Upper House.
He said nearly 90 per cent of all the budget measures had been passed.
-We are putting the plan on the table for all to see and we will continue to work with the Senate to give effect to it,- he said.
MYEFO downgrades the Federal Treasury’s predictions for economic growth from a gross domestic product (GDP) figure of 2.75 per cent in 2015-16, to 2.5 per cent.
The Government said it had adopted more -realistic- growth outcomes, and that combined with weaker global growth, declining terms of trade and falling commodity prices had contributed to revenue write downs of $34 billion.
The May budget forecasts were based on an iron ore price of $US48 per tonne, but that has been downgraded to $US39 per tonne.
Unemployment is expected to rise slightly from the November result of 5.8 per cent, peaking at 6 per cent in 2015-16 and remaining steady.
The Government had previously aimed to return the budget to balance in 2019-20, but has revised that target to one year later.
The Department of Immigration and Border Protection was one of the winners out of MYEFO, gaining more than $1 billion in additional funding over four years.
The total additional funding of $1.09 billion includes $499.7 million to manage the legacy caseload of asylum seekers.
An additional $342.2 million has been allocated over two years for refugee resettlement arrangements for asylum seekers in offshore centres, as well as $213.3 million over four years for the management of the onshore centres.
Counter-terror measures have also been allocated additional funding, with the Department of Public Prosecutions and the Attorney-General’s Department to get an extra $20 million for counter-terrorism prosecutions.
A total of $52.5 million is being cut from arts funding, while Green Army projects are to be capped at 500 a year, saving $317.5 million from the program.
The Government has also increased the funding allocated for the establishment of the National Wind Farm Commissioner and the Independent Scientific Committee on Wind Turbines, up $600,000 over four years to a total of $2.5 million.
‘On a road to nowhere’
Opposition Leader Bill Shorten adopted Mr Morrison’s car-trip analogy in his MYEFO response, stating the budget was -on a road to nowhere with no prospect of improving-.
-Today, we hear that the deficit’s up, that indeed wage growth is stalling just above inflation, that we are seeing confidence down, we are seeing capital expenditure down,- he said.
-So this Government is taking us in a path of cuts now which is not what Australia needs at the moment.-
Shadow Treasurer Chris Bowen described the figures as a -great big failure-, citing the increased deficit.
-This update shows that Malcolm Turnbull and Scott Morrison presided over a budget deficit blowing out at the rate of $120 million a day since the last budget,- he said.
-The deficit’s blown out by $26 billion over the last seven months … if they have no plan to return to balance, what is the point of the Turnbull Government?-
Mr Bowen said the Opposition was concerned over cuts to health expenditure, as well as the crackdown on welfare compliance.
-The Government had alternatives today — they have could have adopted Labor’s plan for multi-national tax, higher income superannuation, tobacco,- he said.
-They would have received bipartisan support, yet they have chosen yet again to simply preside over blowouts in the budget deficit while attacking those who can least afford it the most.-
Read the 2015-16 MYEFO documents from here
Link to the ABC News article
Answer the following questions:
In your response, you should discuss the following questions in an essay format.
Question 1: What is fiscal policy? Comment on the role of fiscal policy in a modern economy. Illustrate and explain how fiscal policy may be used to remove a deflationary gap.
Question 2: The long-term trajectory of returning to surplus is being pushed back by another year, until 2020-21. What is the current stance of fiscal policy in Australia? Apply your understanding of fiscal policy to the real life economic example and explain how the government will return the budget from a deficit to a surplus by 2020-21. How does Australia’s budget deficit compare with the budget balances of OECD economies? Use secondary sources including graphs and tables to explain.
Question 3: According to the MYEFO statement, what factors have contributed to the deterioration of the budget deficit? Comment on the spending changes outlined by the government to offset increasing spending and to reduce the deficit. What are the likely consequences of government spending cuts?
Question 4: Read the latest economic outlook (ex. 2016-17 MYEFO), comment on the most recent state of macroeconomic indicators such as inflation, unemployment and government spending cuts for 2017. What factors might have lessened or worsened the severity of deficit for 2017 since the release of 2015-16 MYEFO statement?
Question 5: Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of using fiscal policy to stabilise the economy.
ECON11026 –Assignment-3 Marking Sheet
Student Name:
Marking Criteria Weight
Overall presentation
Structure and organisation of the paper 1
Clarity of expression 1
Evidence of wide reading and research (in-text and end-text referencing) 1
Application of theory to practice 7 x 5 Q 1 Q 2 Q 3 Q 4 Q 5
Define key terms, explain key issue and problem in the case 2
Identify and explain assumptions 1
Provide appropriately adapted graphical illustration/s, tables with explanation 1.5
Provide critical analysis of the question drawing theory from relevant chapter topics 2.5
Provide conclusions of the case, highlighting overarching economic issues 2
Final mark for Assessment – 3 /40
Additional Comments:

Assessment item 1 Short Response Discussion Topics

Assessment item 1
Short Response Discussion Topics
Value: 15%
Due date: 03-Dec-2017
Return date: 28-Dec-2017
Length: Max 200 words per blog response
Submission method options
Alternative submission method
Task
This task requires you to submit TWO responses, as blogs, to each key topic in week 1 and 2 (ie a total of four responses). Blogs should be approximately 150 to 200 words each. This assessment is approximately 800 words in total. After submitting your responses into the student blog forum, you also need to submit your all the responses to the topic questions as a single word document using Turnitin by the due date. This will enable me to provide you with confidential individual feedback.
Step 1. Create a blog entry – Instructions for creating a blog entry are in the Resources section of the subject site. You are welcome to comment constructively on another students work if you so choose.
Step 2: Once you have submitted your blog, you need to paste the contents of your responses to each question into a word document, then when you have done all four, submit it (including your name, student number and subject name and code) via Turnitin by the due date.
Task # Topic Discussion
Topic 1 – Blog 1: What is organisational change?
Blog 2: Discuss why it is necessary for contemporary organisations to appreciate the scale and scope of the change they are facing.
Topic 2 – Blog 3: Discuss some reasons why some change programs in organisations fail, or under-achieve, on the intended goals and then illustrate with a case example.
Blog 4: Discuss further reasons (different from Blog 3) why some change programs in organisations fail, or under-achieve, on the intended goals, and then illustrate with a (different) case example.
Please note: The case examples need to focus upon change programs which were implemented but that failed, or under-achieved, NOT upon organisations that fail because they did not implement a change program (although organisational failure may be the outcome of a failed change program!)
Guidelines for online participation
If you are new to blogs you might be a little nervous about the process. My advice is to take the plunge, begin posting early and then actively build your confidence as you become more familiar with the process. Please ensure that you include at least ONE academic reference for each posting. Use APA6 referencing at the end of each post. This reference list is not included in the word count.
Contributions to online BLOG
The purpose of the blog, as one key medium for this assignment, is to enable the sharing of knowledge and learning between students and to enable you to make constructive comments upon each other work, if you would like to. (Note: any direct comments on others’ blogs done via the blog comment function are not included in the final assignment word count). While considering the views of others (i.e the readings and other students blog posts), your own blog should reflect your thoughts and ideas related to your engagement with this material, in answering the questions.
The implications for you in crafting your contributions are to:
· keep postings short and to the point. Although these blogs are not necessarily intended as mini-essays, please construct your sentences and paragraghs so that they are intelligible to other readers.
· read other relevant blog postings before crafting yours so that you can learn from each other, and build on these postings, rather than merely repeating just what another student has written.
· go for quality of insight rather than quantity of material.
Online submission via Turnitin is required for this assignment. Details will be provided by your subject lecturer.
Rationale
This assignment has been designed to:
• Assess learning outcome 1 – Identify and define organisational change
• Provide opportunities for peer to peer and student – teacher interaction
Marking criteria

Criteria High Distinction
(12.75 – 15.0) Distinction
(12.7 – 11.25) Credit
(11.2 – 9.75) Pass
(9.7 – 7.5 ) Fail
(0 – 7.45)
Contributions
to Forum
Discussions
(15 marks) Posted 4 blogs across both topics in a meaningful way. Your BLOG postings display a thorough understanding of the required readings and underlying concepts including correct use of terminology. Postings integrate multiple readings, or relevant research, to support important points. Challenging assertions and explaining concepts. Postings are well-written and free of errors. Sufficient references cited. Correct use of APA6. Posted 4 blogs across both topics in a meaningful way. Your BLOG postings display a good understanding of the required readings and underlying concepts. Postings use evidence to support important
points and are carefully written. Sufficient references cited, with correct use of APA6. Posted 4 blogs across both topics in a meaningful
way. Some postings lacked depth and detail, and may contain minor errors. Sufficient references cited, APA6 used with occasional errors. Contributed at least 3 relevant blogs across both topics. Comments lacked depth and detail, and may contain significant errors. Insufficient references cited. APA6 used with some errors. Minimal, irrelevant, or no contributions to BLOG postings. Few or no references
cited. Incorrect APA6.

Presentation
For the written submission to Turnitin (word.docx):
• Use headings that reflect each blog question, followed by your response.
• Put the reference list, in APA6, at the end of the assignment.
• Use a title page with your name, student number, subject name and number and assignment name.
• Submit as a word document.
Please use academic communication, including in-text references (although these are not included in the word count).
Requirements
For this assessment you are required to use APA6 referencing to acknowledge the sources that you have used in preparing your assessment. Please refer to the CSU referencing guide http://ift.tt/1MBH9H7. In addition a very useful tool for you to use that demonstrates how to correctly use in text referencing and the correct way to cite the reference in your reference list can be found at http://ift.tt/2ciqjip
This assignment must be submitted through Turnitin.
It is recommended that your name, student ID and page number are included in the header or footer of every page of the assignment.
Further details about submission in Turnitin are provided in On-line submission.

CHAPTER 6: SUMMARIES, CONCLUSIONS AND RECCOMENDATIONS 6.1 Summaries

CHAPTER 6: SUMMARIES, CONCLUSIONS AND RECCOMENDATIONS
6.1 Summaries
The Indian Port has one of the largest merchant fleets with 187 minor ports and 12 major ports. As such, ports are a major contributor to the economy of India because almost 95% of trade in India is done through the sea. According to the findings, there has been a trend of moving products especially manufactured goods to the developing nations via sea and it is this notion that India has the potential to emerge as a large manufacturing hub. Based on previous researchers the major challenges facing Indian ports are a lack of private participation, over-dominance by the government, old infrastructure, high number of unskilled and untrained staff, lack of equipment to handle large capacity cargo, inefficiency caused by poor roads, inadequate cargo-handling equipment and port traffic. To address these issues, the government of India has embarked on different activities the most outstanding ones being port modernization, 100% FDI in the port sector and new port development. Literature on port modernization shows that it has been necessitated by high port traffic. The ports have a capacity of 1500 MTPA yet they are required to handle 2500 MTPA. Port modernization has been achieved by upgrading births and terminals and also improving the current port infrastructure. The theory of modernization posits that modernized societies are characterized by use of recent technology and as such, developing countries should practice the same in order to be modernized. The Indian government has embarked on modernization in the port sector in various ways. The Sagarmala project was initiated by the government with the sole aim of modernizing ports and so far it has achieved great success. This success is evident from the questionnaire and interview responses. According to the questionnaire responses, 47.1% strongly agreed while 24.3% agreed that the government has impacted on port modernization in the Indian ports. This was further elaborated by interviewees who quoted mechanization, replacement of worn out equipment, increase in drafts to handle new vessels and the development of new terminals as some of the government initiatives. Some of the ports that have been modernized in India are the deep sea port in West Bengal, Port of Madras and Vishakhapatnam and the Container transshipment terminal at Vallarrpdam Cochin port.
Concerning the development of new port, findings from secondary sources report that the TEU in Indian ports is increasing and this trend is expected to continue. As such, it is essential to develop new ports to accommodate this increase. Furthermore, major ports such as Mumbai among others can no longer accommodate any further expansion leaving new port development to be the only solution. The traffic handled by Indian ports shows the necessity for the development of new ports to ease this congestion. The advantages of developing new ports include improvement of cargo, reduction in traffic and reduced costs especially due to the development of Indian own transshipment hub. From the literature, the government is focusing on developing a port at West Bangal, Maharashta, ParadipSatelite Port, Machilipatnam, Tamil Nadu and one at Enayaman. 68.7% of the questionnaire respondents agreed that the government has impacted on port modernization in the Indian sector. The interview respondents contended that this move has helped to ease congestion, make use of recent infrastructure, reduced the costs incurred by India in the transhipment hub at Singapore and Colombo. This responses show that the Indian government has positively impacted in the Indian Port Sector through the development of new ports to counter the challenges faced by the sector.
According to the findings, the government of India has allowed 100% FDI in the Indian Port sector. The Solow-Swan model has been used to explain the vitality of FDI in Indian port sector by substituting capital accumulation variable with port traffic. The model posits that FDI promotes technological development which in turn increases productivity. As such, the port sector does not require approval from the government and investors are exempted 100% income tax for 10 years. The government has also encouraged the formation of joint ventures. Private investment is expected to allow for transfer of skills and aid in port modernization and new port development. 67.2% of the questionnaire respondents agree that the 100% FDI policy has transformed the Indian port sector. It was also found that a majority of the port staff is made up of young people between the ages of 20-40 years (77.2%) and as such are conversant with new technology and can learn very fast. Interviewees contended that the FDI policy will help boost the infrastructure development that is already underway and also increase the international presence for the Indian port sector. Besides that, the findings of the study show that FDI has helped to improve poor connectivity in the port sector and also enhance the acquisition of latest technological skills from foreign companies. Technological skills entail trained labour on the latest port technology among others. Some of the new port solutions that have been introduced in the Indian port include the RFID technology. The interviewees also admitted that the government has positively influenced their ports and this is evident by the secondary results on the development of Mumbai port and JNPT port (port studied).
6.2 Conclusions (Answers to research questions)
1. What is the impact of the Indian government on port modernization on the Indian Port Sector?
The Indian government has impacted on port modernization in various ways. Firstly, the government has enabled the construction of new terminals and berths and upgraded projects for berths. Secondly, the government as succeeded in installing new and modern equipment for handling cargo and the draught shave also been deepened to handle larger vessels. Thirdly, the Indian government has initiated the installation of Vessel Traffic Management System (VTMS) to allow for a smooth movement of vessels. Fourthly, there has been the implementation of the port community system through websites. Benchmarking activities have also been encouraged with the aim of upgrading the existing ports to meet international standards. The Sagarmala project has helped to modernize ports through dredging, mechanization and development of new terminals. Also, technological solutions such as OCR and RFID have been introduced in old ports.
2. How has the Indian government influenced new port development in the Indian Port Sector?
The Indian government has impacted on new port development by attracting foreign investors to help in government projects and allocating money toward this project. The government has initiated projects to develop new ports and strategic locations in the Indian coastline. The development of a transhipment in India is underway and this will help to reduce logistic costs. The government has proposed the development of the port at West of Bangal in Sagar Island. Besides that, new ports are also being developed at Machilipatnam, Maharashta, ParadipSatelite Port and Tamil Nadu. The new port being developed at Enayam is also expected to be operational by 2020. Furthermore, another port is underway at Odisha and is expected to increase the capacity of the port from 140 to 250 million tonnes per year.
3. What is the effect of the Indian government policies on FDI on the Indian Port Sector?
The Indian government has allowed 100% FDI in the Indian port sector through automatic route. Furthermore, the government has encourage joint ventures to allow for benchmarking and transfer of skills on the latest port technology. This initiative has increased foreign investment in the Indian port sector and subsequently helped to improve infrastructure. The automatic route will also enable projects to be initiated quickly because they will be no longer a need for lengthy government procedures on the same. FDI generate form the port sector will allow for both port modernization and the development of new ports. Besides that, the FDI policy will increase the productivity of the port sector through the application of latest and efficient technologies in handling cargo. Also, the inward FDI in the port sector has been used to develop terminals at JNPT and International. Transshipment Terminal at Cochin Port. Moreover, FDI has been used to enhance port connectivity and as such ease congestion and traffic.
6.3 Recommendations
Having identified the problems facing the Indian port sector and how the government has impacted on the sector, it is vital to find ways to enhance the government’s involvement while reducing the negative factors. Throughout the study, the government has been identified as a great contributor to the success of the Indian port sector. However, if the government comes up with policies that are restrictive to the port sector, there will be negative consequences. One of the main problem facing the Indian ports is the over-dominancy by the government. Therefore, it is recommendable that the government should corporatize ports for enhanced efficiency, increased commercial orientation and greater accountability (Rao and Gupta, 2006). Despite the fact that there has been corporatization of ports, it has been very slow.
Corporatization will help the ports to be more autonomous and reduced excessive government control. Furthermore, it will also enable the port sector to access commercial funding needed for expansion (Wu and Goh, 2010). Even while the government has encouraged private investment, competition has not been encouraged by introducing two or more service providers. As such, there is a danger of private companies emerging as monopolies. For example all the 6 berths in Chennai were given to an Australian company instead of dividing providers. Therefore, the Indian government should also address these challenge. Corporatization can be achieved by setting up fully owned subsidiary firms by the Port Trusts and leasing the ports to this firms.
There is need to have a regulator that controls on tariff rather than leaving the Indian port sector on the market forces. According to Juhel (2010), market forces alone are okay when there is already competition. However, this is not the case in the Indian port sector. As such, there is need for a regulator that includes pricing to implement, monitor and penalise the non-performing ports. A regulation body will also help the port sector to bargain collectively with the government to improve the Indian port sector. Furthermore, such an authority will help in facilitating efficient multimodal transportation in the port sector (Banerjee and Gupta, 2013)
The Indian government should also consider electronic data exchange systems. These systems as per Alderton and Saieva (2013) will enable ships to inform the port authorities about their cargo arrangements to allow the port authorities to prepare in advance for a faster offloading of vessels. Furthermore, it will also encourage a speedy cargo clearance and in turn help to reduce the problem, of increased port traffic. Therefore, standardization of the protocols will help in operational efficiency which in turn will increase productivity (Verhoeven, 2010). Moreover, there is need for the government to invest in capacity. Although the Indian government has embarked on the development of new ports to ease congestion in non-federal ports, the problem is still the same at federal ports. The government should focus on both private and public ports in order to allow for the smooth flow of cargo (Veenstra, Zuidwijk and Van Asperen, 2012). Therefore, there is need to increase port efficiency and capacity. Further investment in and development of the port infrastructure coupled up with investment and changes in the regulatory body will help to enhance the overall performance of the Indian port sector.
6.4 Suggestions for future research
There is need for future research on how each government initiative affects port characteristics separately. In the current study, the researcher considered different port factors, however, there is need for in-depth study on how each factor affects the port sector. This research was done in India using two ports, the Port of Mumbai and JNPT port as case study. As such, it was limited to that specific location alone. Future researcher should consider doing a similar research in all ports in India to determine if their findings will be consistent. Also, this study only used a sample of 70 and 4 interviewees. The future researchers should consider large samples of up to 500 because such large samples are valid and reliable and as such lead to a highly generalized finding.

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Journal articles
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APPENDIX 1: QUESTIONNAIRE
1. Gender
Male
Female

2. Age
20-30
30-40
40-50
More than 50

Please indicate to what extent you agree or disagree by choosing the appropriate number
3. The government has greatly impacted on new port development
Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree
1 2 3 4 5

4. The government policy of 100% FDI in automatic route has improved port infrastructure
Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree
1 2 3 4 5

5. The government has greatly impacted on port modernization
Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree
1 2 3 4 5

6. The following are factors that limit the growth of the Indian port sector. Please indicate to what extent you agree or disagree.
S/N Factor 1 2 3 4 5
7 Port traffic
8 Poor technology
9 Ownership by the government
10 Inadequate cargo-handling equipment and machinery
11 Inefficiency due to poor hinterland connectivity through

APPENDIX 2: INTERVIEWS
1. What are the challenges and opportunities in the Indian Port sector?
2. What is your view on the government policy of 100% FDI in the port sector?
3. What is the impact of government initiatives to modernize ports?
4. Do you think the government’s plan to develop new ports will help the port industry? If yes, explain how.
5. How has the government impacted on you port?

CHAPTER 5 (a): DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION OF FINDINGS: QUESTIONNAIRES 5.1 Chapter introduction

CHAPTER 5 (a): DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION OF FINDINGS: QUESTIONNAIRES
5.1 Chapter introduction
The findings from the analysis of primary data are written in this chapter. The research entailed collection of data and then processing it in relation to research questions. Collection of data and its analysis was motivated by three main goals. The first is to identify how the government policies on FDI have impacted on the Indian ports. Second, to investigate the impact of government plans to modernise ports on the Indian port sector. Third, to determine the impact of government initiatives of new port development on the Indian port sector. All these aforementioned objectives were accomplished by the researcher.
5.2 Response rate
The response rate was 90%. 90 questionnaires were administered by the researcher but only 70 respondents filled and submitted the questionnaires. This response rate of 90% was desirable as it was above the expected rate of 75%. Additionally, it was enough to generate data.
5.2.1 Response according to gender
The researcher wanted to find out the sex that had taken a bigger portion of the staff. The males were 51.4% while the females were 48.6% as shown in the table below. The implication of this is that most staff in the Indian port sector are males. Generally, the port sector tends to be a male dominated sector.
Table 2: Response according to gender
Frequency Valid Percent
male 34 48.6
female 36 51.4
Total 70 100.0

5.2.2 Response according to age
Besides gender, it was imperative to find out the age of the port staff. Port modernization, new port development and the impact of FDI are all dependant on technology. Furthermore, technological transfer and development of new skills is also dependent on age. While generation Y workers are more open to changes and new system and infrastructure, generation X employees are a bit reluctant. The findings of the study show that a majority of the study population was between 30 an d40 years and was represented by 44.3%. Age group 20-30 were 32.9%, 40-50 were 15.7% while above the age of 50 were 7.1%. This implies that the Indian port staff is majorly composed of the generation Y (Banerjee and Gupta, 2013). Therefore, they are more open to the changes in port infrastructure and introduction of new port technology.
Table 3: Response according to age
Age Frequency Valid Percent
20-30 23 32.9
30-40 31 44.3
40-50 11 15.7
>50 5 7.1
Total 70 100.0

5.3 Response according to the impact of the government on new port development
The aim of this question was to determine whether the government had impacted on new port development in India port sector. Comparing this responses with the secondary data will enable the researcher to identify the impact of the government on new port development. A majority of the respondents (42.9%) strongly agreed that the government has impacted on new port development. 25.7% agree, 15.7% had neutral feelings, 8.6% disagree while 7.1% strongly disagreed. The high number of respondents who strongly agree plus those who agree may be the ones who handle cargo and have experienced port traffic and thus appreciate the government initiatives to develop new ports. According to the secondary data, demand for goods has resulted in huge volumes of cargo in turn leading to high traffic in ports (Kirubakaran, 2010). Some major ports such as the ones studied (Mumbai and JNPT) can no longer be expanded further and that is why the government has opted to develop new ports to ease traffic in this ports. According to Sanchez,Ng and Garcia-Alonso (2011), the total traffic handled at Mumbai Port increased from 27063 thousand tonnes in 200-01 to 59184 thousand tonnes in 2013-14. Similarly,Kirubakaran (2010) posits that JNPT accounts for more than half of the total container capacity thus resulting in high traffic. Therefore, the development of new ports that is currently underway is a major booster. The neutral respondents may be staff from other sectors that have not been affected in any way by development of new ports. Therefore, they have not really felt the government initiatives to develop new ports. Those who disagree or disagree are also small in number and can be said to be new staff who have not worked for long with the port sector and as such are not very versed with port issues and do not view the importance of new port development.

Table 4: Response according to the impact of the government on new port development

Frequency Valid Percent
strongly disagree 5 7.1
disagree 6 8.6
neutral 11 15.7
Agree 18 25.7
strongly agree 30 42.9
Total 70 100.0

5.4 Response according to whether the government policy of 100% FDI in automatic route has improved port infrastructure
The researcher was interested in determining whether the government policy of 100% FDI has helped to improve infrastructure in the Indian port sector. Most of the respondents strongly agree (38.6%) and agree (28.6%) that the government policies on FDI have improved port infrastructure. 17.1% had neutral response, 8.6% disagreed and 7.1 strongly disagreed. The table below presents the responses.

Table 5: Response according to whether the government policy of 100% FDI in automatic route has improved port infrastructure
Frequency Valid Percent
Strongly disagree 5 7.1
disagree 6 8.6
Neutral 12 17.1
agree 20 28.6
strongly agree 27 38.6
Total 70 100.0

According to Kirubakaran (2010), there are ongoing government projects that have attracted FDI in both Mumbai and JNPT port. For example, construction of a road from JNPT to Mumbai was initiated in July 2016 to enhance a smooth flow of cargo. Kirubakaran (2010) also contends that favourable investment climate, strong potential for growth and sops that have been provided by the Indian government have promoted both domestic and foreign players to enter India’s port sector. The fact that a majority of respondents strongly agree that foreign investment has helped to improve infrastructure also shows that this government policy is advantageous to the port sector. As stated earlier, most of the staff are generation Y and this also implies that a majority have readily adopted the new changes in infrastructure (Mansouri, Sauser and Boardman, 2009). The small portion who strongly disagree are most likely to be those above 50 who are reluctant to adapt to new organizational and physical structures and as such may not see their vitality in the port sector.
5.5 Response according to the impact of the government on port modernization
The researcher was interested in finding out what how the port staff thought about the governments’ initiatives to modernize Indian ports. 47.1% strongly agree, 24.3% agree, 14.3% were neutral, 10% disagree and 4.3% strongly disagree. The researcher found out that the government as greatly impacted on modernizing ports. The studied ports have been modernized with recent infrastructure and technology. This implies better and larger container vessels, new terminals and improved cargo containerization. Furthermore, both JNPT and Mumbai Port use the latest technological solutions in handling port activities such as RFDI. The table below shows the degree to which the respondents agreed with this question.
Table 6: Response according to the impact of the government on port modernization
Frequency Valid Percent
strongly disagree 3 4.3
disagree 7 10.0
neutral 10 14.3
agree 17 24.3
strongly agree 33 47.1
Total 70 100.0

5.6 Response on factors that limit the growth of the Indian port sector
The researcher was interested in determining the factors that limit growth of the Indian port sector. Participants were to state their level of agreement or disagreement with port traffic, port technology, ownership by the government, Inadequate cargo-handling equipment and machinery and Inefficiency due to poor hinterland connectivity through Indian ports. For port traffic, 40% strongly agree, 28.6% agree, 12.9% were neutral, 10% disagree and 8.6% strongly disagreed as shown in the table below.
Table 7: Response on factors that limit the growth of the Indian port sector
Frequency Valid Percent
strongly disagree 6 8.6
disagree 7 10.0
neutral 9 12.9
agree 20 28.6
strongly agree 28 40.0
Total 70 100.0
Concerning poor technology in the port sector. 54.3% strongly agree, 22.9% agree, 15.7% felt neutral, 4.3% disagree and 2.9% strongly disagree. This is illustrated in the table below.
Table 8: Response on poor technology in the port sector
Frequency Valid Percent
strongly disagree 2 2.9
disagree 3 4.3
neutral 11 15.7
agree 16 22.9
strongly agree 38 54.3
Total 70 100.0
For ownership by the government, 41.4% strongly agree and 44.3% agree, 10% were neutral and 2.9% disagree while 1.4% strongly disagreed as represented below.
Table 9: Response on ownership by the government
Frequency Valid Percent
strongly disagree 1 1.4
disagree 2 2.9
neutral 7 10.0
agree 31 44.3
strongly agree 29 41.4
Total 70 100.0
Responses of the factor of inadequate cargo-handling and machinery were 21.4% for strongly agree, 35.7% for agree, 18.6% for neutral, 14.3% for disagree and 10% for strongly agree as shown below.
Table 10: Response on inadequate cargo-handling and machinery
Frequency Valid Percent
strongly disagree 7 10.0
disagree 10 14.3
neutral 13 18.6
agree 25 35.7
Strongly agree 15 21.4
Total 70 100.0
Responses on inefficiency due to poor connectivity through ports were 31.4% for those who strongly agree, 25.7% agreed, 18.6% felt neutral while 12.9% disagreed and 11.4% strongly disagreed.
Table 11: Responses on inefficiency due to poor connectivity through ports
Frequency Valid Percent
strongly disagree 8 11.4
disagree 9 12.9
neutral 13 18.6
agree 18 25.7
strongly agree 22 31.4
Total 70 100.0

CHAPTER 5 (b): DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION OF FINDINGS: INTERVIEWS
Information that was collected from the face to face interviews is presented in this section. The analysis is done based on the responses from the interviewees. The researcher used the letters A, B, C and E as the identities of the respondents. Letters were used to conceal identity so as to ensue confidentiality and privacy of responses obtained from the respondents.
5.1 Interviewee profile
Interviewee Gender Occupation Experience in the Organization Age
A Female Cargo handling manager 6 years 33
B Male Marine Engineer 7 years 30
C Male Naval Architect 4 years 27
E Female Shipbuilding engineer 6 years 35
Table 12: Interviewee profile
5.2 Response on the challenges and opportunities in the Indian Port Sector
According to respondent A, the Indian port sector HAS low productivity and few road connections within the port area. Respondent B said that “the main challenge facing our ports is the over dominance by the government and the lack of equipment to handle large volumes of cargo.” As per respondent C, India port sector has very few trained labour and skilled employees. E said that there is inadequate navigational aids. All the respondents agreed that lack of latest technology is a major challenge facing the Indian ports. The response given by the interviewees all correspond to the literature review. According to the literature, India has poor roads connecting to the ports and his causes delays which slow down production (Haralambides and Gujar, 2012). B’s response is also similar to the findings of research by Deloche (1983) which showed that most of the Indian ports are owned by the government and this slows down the decision making process of major projects. Also as B said equipment at the Indian ports can only handle small cargo capacity and as such it is unable to meet the accelerating growth in international trade that demands for more volume of cargo. As said by C, very few employees in the Indian sector are trained or skilled, as such, they do not have the necessary skills required to handle new technology and infrastructure and this further slows down production. Mandal, Roychowdhury and Biswas(2016) posit that it is indeed true that India has very few navigation aids (fog signals, buoys, lighthouses and day beacons). The consequences of this is increased risk of accident occurrence (Mandal, Roychowdhury and Biswas, 2016).
In response to the opportunities in the Indian port sector A said that the sector has a very high potential; to attract foreign investors. According to Haralambides and Behrens (2000),India has the opportunity to partner with foreign companies if it improves its infrastructure. Improvement of infrastructure will make the sector attractive to investors. B contented that India has the opportunity to build its own transhipment hub. As per the literature, India depends on Singapore and Colombo transhipment hub and this causes the sector to incur further costs. Therefore, building a hub in the southern tip between the East and West Trade centres will be of benefit as proposed by the government. With the current policy on 100% FDI in the port sector, C stated that India can use this opportunity to expand the capacity at major ports. The current major ports are congested as they cannot handle large cargo and experience high traffic slows down production. E responded that the best available opportunity for India is to partner with foreign nations to allow for benchmarking in order to acquire the necessary knowledge and skills required to improve the port sector.
5.3 Respondents view on the government policy of 100% FDI in the port sector
Respondent A said that the FDI policy will help to improve the current old infrastructure in most Indian ports. As per the secondary analysis, the government is already implementing this by using the inward FDI for modern cargo handling facilities and also for improving the conditions of existing ports (Panigrahi and Pradhan, 2012). Obsolete infrastructure in the Indian ports has led to inefficiencies in the daily port operations such as cargo handling. Furthermore, the infrastructure cannot support large vessels despite the current demand for transportation of large volumes of cargo. Through FDI, which will be obtained from joint ventures, foreign companies can easily introduce and recommend modern infrastructure to the domestic companies (Haralambides and Behrens, 2000). Respondent B, on the other hand views that FDI will increase the international presence of the Indian port sector. This is because most companies will be investing in India and this will increase their recognition in international trade (Panigrahi and Pradhan, 2012). The advantages of international presence as per Nadkarni (2006) are a diversification of the revenue stream, increase on return capital and increased productivity. B also added that FDI will be used to improve the poor connectivity at the port sector. The roads leading to ports in India are still very poor and the railways which are the main transport system that connect with water transport are very few resulting in high traffic in ports. The size of vessels is increasing dramatically and this demands for environmentally sound and efficient transport by expanding port facilities and improving infrastructure in railways and road that lead to the airport. Therefore, the government plans to connect roads, railways and marine transport will promote a smooth flow of goods to and from the port sector.
According to respondent C and E, FDI is vital because it will enable the port sector to acquire the latest technological skills from the foreign companies. It has been argued by Nadkarni(2006) that lack of foreign relationships delays the adoption of modern technological skills. Therefore, engaging with foreign investors can expose he port sector to the current technology used in marine industry. For example, the Indian government has implemented the use of technological solutions such as RFID in the port sector. Additionally, according to the modernization theory, ‘traditional’ or ‘pre-modern’ nations and in this case, the Indian port sector can become modernised by modelling the practises used by the modernised economies. Furthermore, all the respondents shared similar views of the fact that FDI will be beneficial in training the unskilled staff and untrained labour. FDI entails creation of a relationship with multinational companies and as earlier stated, such ventures result in transfer of technology and skills. As such, it is only imperative that the untrained labour be trained on how to handle the modern infrastructure while the rest of the staff be mentored on how to use the recent shipping technology.
5.4 Responses on the impact of government initiatives to modernize ports
On responses on the impact of the government initiatives on port modernization, respondent A stated that this move will help to enhance the mechanization in both major and minor ports. A’s view can be backed up by India and Analysis (2017)reports on the low capacity equipment used at many berths in India. These equipment are mostly worn out and were traditionally designed to meet the productivity at that particular time. With the current increase in production, this old equipment which are also poorly maintained are unable to meet the increased growth. Therefore, modernization of ports will help to replace this old machinery with modern ones. B and E shared views on the fact that port modernization initiatives by the government will enhance draft. It is evident that most Indian ports have low drafts which cannot be equated to the current increase in shapes and sizes of ships. Although the average draft ranges between 12-14 meters, a majority of ports worldwide have increased their draft up to 23 metres (Makeinindia.com, 2017). This increased height allows the ports to handle the new vessels that have a capacity of 15,000 TEUs (Makeinindia.com, 2017). Therefore, the efforts of the government of India to modernize ports will help them to be at par with the recent developments in the world maritime industry. Respondent C stated that port modernization will enable the Indian government to develop new terminals. The current infrastructure does not allow the existing ports to handle high traffic. Therefore, modernizing this ports will enable new berths and terminals to be built. The government has already initiated plans on this whereby a coastal berth is being built at Kandla to handle fertilizer and food grains.
5.5 Respondents view on whether the government’s plan to develop new ports will help the port industry
Respondent A asserted that the government initiatives to develop Indian ports will help to reduce the current volume congestion. From the literature review and secondary analysis, it can be stated that high capacity increases traffic at the port sector because it implies use of limited resources to handle huge values of cargo. Therefore, developing new ports as per A is the only way to clear this saturation. According to Nadkarni (2006) major ports in India have reached the maximum capacity for expansion implying that it is impossible to expand them further, as such, developing new ports will allow for distribution of this volume of cargo and ultimately reduce traffic. Respondents B, C and E view the government’s plan to modernise new ports as a way of making ports more available. From the literature review, there are many strategic positions at the Indian port sector that can be used to develop new ports, most cargo is usually forced to travel for long distances to access the port and this consumes both time and adds to the cost incurred in handling cargo. Therefore, creating more ports can help to increase the points for cargo handling, or cargo lifting and offloading. Respondent E also stated that the government initiative to develop new ports will impact on the sector by reducing the costs incurred in using Singapore and Colombo trasnsshipment hub. According to the secondary analysis, India a lacks a transhipment hub. Therefore new port development initiatives by the government will enable India to have its own trasshipment hub at its Southern tip. C also contended that with the 100% FDI, it is only logic that the government develops new ports in order to attract more investors. Furthermore, India has one of the largest coastline and development of new ports is one way of taking advantage of this. All the respondents also agreed that development of new ports is an opportunity for India to introduce and exercise modern infrastructure and recent technology. This is true as per Kirubakaran (2010) who argues that India can take advantage of this development by using latest technology in developing this ports which will even be better than modernization of ports. Besides that, new port development will enable India to source the best and most modern infrastructure for its new ports (Makeinindia.com, 2017).
5.6 Response according to how has the government impacted on you port
Respondents A and E who came from similar ports, the Port of Mumbai gave similar responses on the government impact on their ports. Both respondents agreed that the government has impacted on development of automatic gate, improvement of infrastructure and cargo handling facilities and the use of new technological systems. Safaei (2003) also contends that the government has implemented the development of gate automation which will enable traffic to be controlled through computer systems. Respondent B and C stated that the government plans to connect ports with inland waterways at JNPT port, has improved connectivity at JNPT, introduced technological solutions and enhanced drafts. All the respondents also contended on the 100% FDI in their ports and how there has been increased foreign investments. As per respondent B and C, JNPT, which is India’s largest container handling port signed an agreement with State Bank of India to improve the infrastructure that is required to increase its capacity. The government as per C is also underway in building a satellite port at Wadhwan that will help to ease congestion of ships at JNPT. C also stated that the government is building a new terminal at their port (JNPT).
5.7 Chapter summary
According to the findings from the interviews and questionnaires, most respondents agree that the government has impact of infrastructure, modernization of ports and the development of new ports in India. However, respondents also view port traffic and old infrastructure as the main factors limiting the Indian Port Sector.

CHAPTER 4: ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION OF FINDINGS (secondary data) 4.1 Chapter introduction

CHAPTER 4: ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION OF FINDINGS (secondary data)
4.1 Chapter introduction
This chapter presents the analysis of secondary data. The data has been analysed in accordance with the objectives of the study. Figures have been used to illustrate the main points in the discussion. Also, the researcher refers to the literature to support the analysis.
4.2 The Indian Port Sector
The India is bestowed with a long coastline of about 7,517 km along both the eastern and western sides of the main land (Haralambides and Gujar, 2012). The country has one off the largest merchant shipping fleets as evidenced by its 187 minor ports and 12 major ports (Maritimeinvest.in, 2017). As per the Ministry of Shipping, ports are very vital as they contribute in sustaining and developing the Indian economy. About 95% of all trade in India is done through maritime transport.Dasgupta& Sinha (2016) also contend that the current trend of Western nations of moving manufacturing goods to developing nations and the high likelihood of India to emerge as a manufacturing hub will greatly contribute to the growth of India’ s maritime industry. Besides that, the cargo volume of India as per the Ministry of Shipping increased from 850 million tonnes between 2009 and 2010 to 883 million tonnes in 2010-2011 (India, and Analysis, 2017). The major ports in India are Cochin, Kolkata, Jawaharlal Nehru Port, Mumbai Port, Port Blair, Vishakhapatnam, New Mangalore, Paradip and Chennai, among others (Association, 2017).
There are several challenges faced by the Indian ports. There is a lack of easy financing options for the port projects which has been caused by delays in obtaining approval from the government and compliance with the coastal rules. There is a lack of private participation and green projects which are mostly in remote locations suffer much because they depend on government support to create infrastructure for access to the sites. Besides that, Prakash and Rao (2011) report that a majority of port projects are congested with untrained and unskilled staff which ultimately affects the development of such ports as they suffer from low labour productivity, inefficiency and industrial actions. Even if the government agrees to take part in implementing different strategies, Panigrahi and Pradhan (2012) argue that they fail to meet deadlines thus delaying growth. The other challenges facing the India Port Sector include poor technology, inadequate navigation aids, lack of equipment to handle large capacity, insufficient dredging capacity, inefficiency caused by poor connectivity and inadequate cargo-handling machinery and equipment.
4.3 The impact of the Indian government on port modernization on the Indian Port Sector
The modernization of the Indian ports remained amongst the top priority sections of the government in 2007 (Maritimeinvest.in, 2017). Traffic in the Indian ports has increased significantly and 2025, the ports will be required to handle 2500 MTPA while the current capacity is 1500MTPA. De (2011) asserts that around 10 MTPA can come from modernization of ports. The government of India has taken several measures to modernize the ports. There has been construction of new terminals and berths and also upgrading of projects for berths (Association, 2017). The government has also succeeded in installing new and modern equipment for handling cargo and the draughts have been deepened to handle larger vessels. For smooth movement of vessels, the government initiated the installation of Vessel Traffic Management System (VTMS).
The figure below shows the levels of cargo traffic at non-major ports in India and it is clear that traffic is accelerating since the financial year of 2007 and is expected to be at 815.2 in 2017 (India, and Analysis, 2017). Use of new technology and infrastructure by modernising ports can help to reduce this traffic.
Figure 3: Cargo traffic at non-major ports

(Source:India, and Analysis, 2017)
Additionally, there has been implementation of a port community system through websites. Haralambides and Behrens (2000) also add that the government has encouraged benchmarking activities aimed at upgrading the existing ports to meet international standards. Port modernization in India has majorly been conducted under the Sagarmala government project. The aim of this project is to modernise India’s ports and develop coastlines to contribute to the nation’s growth.
The project was approved on 25th March, 2013 and since then, there have been substantial changes (Bakr, 2001). The Sagarmala project has helped to modernize ports under three themes; mechanization, dredging and development of new terminals. In relation to mechanization, there has been low productivity due to use of low capacity equipment which are mostly out of date and as such they have been replaced with new ones as identified in ports such as Tuticorin, Kandle and Haldia. The government has introduced technology based solutions like OCR and RFID in the port sector. There has also been improvement of rake turnaround time in KDS and gate processing in Chennai. Concerning drenching, the government has recognized that there is need for draft enhancement in India if they are to compete with the accelerating growth in container and cargo traffic. Plans to increase the draft at Ennore and Paradip from 16 to 18 are already in motion (Amit, 2017). The government has also developed new terminals to increase the capacity of the existing ports. As such, new edible oil terminals are being developed in Kochi, multipurpose cargo terminals in Uran and other terminals in Nhava and Ro Ro.
Some of the ports that have been modernised include the Port of Madras and Vishakhapatnam Port. Also, there has been development of a modern deep sea port in West Bengal to facilitate berth vessels that require a minimum draft of 18m. Rail connectivity to the International Container Transshipment Terminal at Vallarrpdam Cochin port India is also underway. Currently, the ports of Mormugao and Kamarajar are being expanded to increase their drafts by 18metres so that they can handle capsize vessels. The Sagarmala project, as per Patel and Bhattacharya (2010) is focussed on developing infrastructure so as to move goods quickly from ports by cutting the logistic costs. The waste caused by poor infrastructure in the Indian cost contributes to about 4.3% GDP (Patel and Bhattacharya, 2010). Due to the poor infrastructure at the port, India transshipment cargo is being handled by other South Asia hubs like Singapore or Colombo and this costs the country almost $230 million (Patel and Bhattacharya, 2010). Furthermore, it forces India shippers to more to get their goods to the international market. Therefore, upgrading infrastructure through the Sagarmala project will help to reduce these costs significantly.
4.4 Indian government has influenced new port development in the Indian Port Sector
The Indian port sector has twelve large ports which are administered by the government and other 200 small ports managed by the state governments (Safaei, 2003). According to the Ministry of Shipping, 69 of the small ports were documented to have ran cargo traffic between 2014 and 2015 (Marinebuzz.com, 2017). Additionally, Nadkarni (2006) asserts that with the increase in domestic and international trade volumes, the maritime infrastructure sector is expected to significantly grow. India needs more ports to cater for the rising container volumes as shown below
As per the figure below, Twenty foot equivalent unit (TEUs) in India’s ports is increasing from 2013 and is expected to be 8.2 million in 2016. Therefore, there is need to develop ore ports to accommodate this increase.
Figure 4: Fiscal year throughput at major India Ports

(Source:India, and Analysis, 2017)
There is, therefore, need to develop new ports to handle the increasing growth in the Indian’s port sector. Mandal,Roychowdhury and Biswas(2016) contend that in the financial year 2014-2015, 44.75% of the major traffic was handled by the minor ports. As stated earlier, the ports will be expected to handle a capacity of 1500 MTPA and this extra capacity as per Haralambides and Behrens (2000) will have to come from new ports. The table below shows traffic handled by both ports in India from 1992 to 1999. As per the table, traffic in both minor and major ports has improved significantly.
Figure 5: Traffic handled by major and minor ports

(Source:India, and Analysis, 2017)
It is this notion that the Indian government has took initiatives to develop new ports. According to the Indian government, the need for new ports has been propelled by capacity saturation, non-availability of ports and strategic locations. Ports such as Jawaharlal Nehru Port (JNPT) are saturated with traffic and have a limited capacity to expand (Haralambides and Gujar, 2011). Therefore, building new ports is the only way to cater for increased traffic in such ports. Moreover, there are some specific spots along the coastline that lack an operational port forcing cargo to travel to longer distances to access alternative ports. The result is increased costs in handling cargo and waste of time. Creation of new ports at such locations will improve the movement of cargo. Most of transhipment cargo from India depends on the ports of Singapore and Colombo. As such, developing a transhipment hub at the southern tip of India will be of great help to the sector (Marinebuzz.com, 2017).
Currently, the government has already identified locations for the development of new ports and some are already underway. The Greenfield major ports that the government plans to develop are Maharashta, ParadipSatelite Port, Machilipatnam, Tamil Nadu (Makeinindia.com, 2017). Also an international container shipment hub is being developed at Vizhinjam (Kerala) and Enayam (Tamil Nadu). India’s Port of Kolkata has also proposed the development of a port at West Bangal in Sagar Island in order to reduce constraints such as high dredging cost, long river navigation and draft navigation. The new port in Enayam is also expected to be operational by 2020 (Makeinindia.com, 2017)). The Enayam port is expected to be formed using a special purpose vehicle (SPV) that will be used as a major gateway container for cargo. According to the government, the new port in Odisha is expected to increase the port’s capacity from 140 to 250 million tonnes per year by 2020 (Makeinindia.com, 2017).
4.5 The effect of the Indian government policies on FDI on the Indian Port Sector
According to Mandal, Roychowdhury and Biswas (2016), most of the developing nations are keen to attract foreign capital in order to promote their economic growth. Reports from the World Bank that date back to as far as 1990s show that India is a very attractive destination for FDI and especially in the infrastructure sector (Investindia.gov.in, 2017). The Indian port sector has been able to attract foreign investors. The table below show the throughput of major ports in India.
Figure 6: Throughput of major ports in India

(Source: Poelhekke and van der Ploeg, 2010)
At the moment, most ports in India have old and poorly maintained equipment and a framework varies with the general economic goals of the government. The government has not yet focused on the resources that are required for port development. Although the private sector is the best option for the India port sector, it is unclear whether it will rise to the occasion. Besides that, it is imperative for the government to define the parameters for restructuring the port in a way that attracts national and international capital (Poelhekke and van der Ploeg, 2010). To attract foreign investors, the Indian government has allowed 100% FDI through automatic route. Automatic route as per Mandal, Roychowdhury and Biswas (2016) entail that the port sector does not need prior approval from the government. As such, investors are exempted 100% income tax for 10 years (Weintrit, 2013). The government has also allowed for formation of joint ventures between foreign and major ports without tenders. This initiative is aimed at attracting new technology from the joint venture and introduce better management systems for the creation of efficient port infrastructure while at the same time improving confidence of private sector in funding ports (Haralambides and Gujar, 2011). Joint ventures will allow for the expansion of port infrastructure. Foreign investments will also be in the form of port trusts and this is a huge deviation from the previous policy whereby foreign investors were only permitted to be Transfer Operations and Build own in pot trusts such as providing cargo handling facilities. As per the current government policy, Port Trusts will be the majority partners for all ventures in cargo handling facilities.
According to Banerjee & Gupta (2013), Tariff Authority for Major Ports (TAMP) has power over for major ports and this results in an unhealthy competition between the major and minor ports. An induction of the FDI will further deepen and broaden the already existing intense competition between the minor and major ports. In such a case, it will appear unfair to subject the major ports to TAMP while allowing the minor ports freedom to adjust their tariffs. It is on this notion that the Ministry of Shipping issued new Guidelines in 2013 that confirm with the international practise. The permission of 100% FDI has also impacted on infrastructure in the port sector. The government has opened various areas of port functioning such as construction of cargo, warehouse facilities, and container terminals to the foreign and private investors. Furthermore, FDI will be able to supplement skills, technology and domestic capital for economic growth. Haralambides and Behrens (2000) contend US $ 1635 million FDI was received during 2000-2013. This FDI was used to develop terminals at JNPT and International Transhipment Terminal at Cochin Port (Kristiansen, 2013).
According to the figure below, there has been an increase in FDI in ports since 2000 to 2009.
Figure 7: Foreign Direct Investment in Ports

(Source: India and Analysis, 2017)
The government also plans to use the foreign investment for port connectivity. Currently, traffic in India is majorly carried by road and rail. However, the conditions of bot roads and rails is very poor resulting in higher costs and waste of time. Railways face capacity problems especially on the Delhi-Mumbai sector and this results in 130% congestion and delays at the ports (Maritimeinvest.in, 2017). The governments intends to use the inward FDI to construct two Dedicated Freight Corridors (DFCs) that will provide extra tracking capacity. Some of the foreign investors in the Indian port sector include Dubai Ports World (UAE), AP Moller Maersk (Denmark), Jan Del Nul NV (Belgium), PSA Singapore (Singapore), Royal BoskalisWestminister NV (Netherlands) and Hyundai Engineering and Construction Company Limited (South Korea).
4.6 Chapter summary
The Indian government has greatly impacted in the Indian port sector in various ways. The government has allowed 100% FDI through automatic rout and this has attracted foreign investors who have enhanced transfer of technology and skills. More importantly, the FDI has been used to develop port infrastructure. Besides that, the Sagarmala project that the governmentinitiated is set to see modernization of ports. The Indian government has also embarked on the development of new ports to ease traffic and handle large vessel capacity.

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY 3.1 Chapter introduction

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.1 Chapter introduction
The methodology chapter outlines and critically discusses the techniques used by the researcher in collecting data. The section is divided into other subdivisions which include the research philosophy, research choice, research strategy, research approaches, and the horizon of the research, collection and presentation of data, time scale, ethical consideration and reliability and validity. These subdivisions were adopted from the research onion that was developed by Saunders, Lewis & Thornhill (2012). Convenient sampling was used to select the biggest port in India. The research onion adopted by the researcher is illustrated below.
Figure 2: Research onion

Source: (Saunders, Lewis & Thornhill, 2012)
3.2 Research philosophy
A research philosophy as perWilson (2014), refers to a set of beliefs about what is being studied. The research philosophy used for this study was both interpretivism and positivism. Positivists posit that it is possible to know the world by just observing and making deductions. As such, information is obtained through manipulation of mathematics and logistics. Since the researcher wanted to collect information based on empirical evidence, positivism was the best philosophy. Under this philosophy, the researcher assumed that the Indian community operates under rules and regulations just like any other community. Besides that, the researcher decided to use this philosophy because the collected data was expected to be generalizable to the whole nation.
Interpretivists, on the other hand, posit that reality is obtained from various people thus implying that there are multiple realities (Wilson, 2014). For example, the way that port authorities and staff view port modernization may involve studying their impact on port modernization instead of facts about how various factors promote or undermine port modernization. As such, the researcher will be interpreting how the world works. It is beneficial to use interpretivism because it uses qualitative techniques which allow the researcher to evaluate realities instead of solely reporting on them (Wilson, 2014).
3.3. Research approach
This study utilized a deductive research approach. Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill (2012) describe this approach as testing or comparing results against already known or existing knowledge. Deductive approach basically allows for the use of quantitative methods and works from a general point of view to a more specific one. The other alternative that the researcher did not consider was the inductive approach. An inductive approach is more of working from a general to a specific point of view. However, the objective of this study was to confirm the hypothesis that the government has impacted on the Indian Port Sector. It was, therefore, logical to use the deductive approach because the researcher came up with the topic and developed questions and objectives with the purpose of making conclusions and theories based on the research findings.
3.4 Research strategy
The researcher adopted both a literature review and survey strategy. The objective of the study was to investigate the impact of the Indian government on Indian Port Sector. The information required to fulfil this objective can only be accessed through randomly selected port staff and secondary sources. Therefore, use of interviews, questionnaires and secondary sources is the most appropriate tool to collect such data. Questionnaires were advantageous as the allowed for access to a large population for generasability of data. The only disadvantage of questionnaires was meeting the high cost of distributing to a large sample. Interviews, on the hand, helped to provide an in-depth information and analyse different opinions thus providing more understanding of the topic.Using secondary sources enabled the researcher to re-analyse the already existing information.
3.5 Time horizon
The time horizon that was employed for this research was cross-sectional time horizon. The research was only done at one point in time making cross-sectional horizon to be the only appropriate choice. The researcher intended to find out the impact of the Indian government on the Indian port sector. The study happened in January 2017. Such time of research requires the cross-sectional time horizon. A longitudinal time horizon was an inappropriate choice for this study because it involves studying changes in a certain pattern over a long period of time. This was not the case for this study.
3.6 Research choice
The researcher choices used were secondary studies, qualitative and quantitative studies. Questionnaires were used in the case of quantitative studies. Qualitative studies involved the use of interviews. It was imperative to use interviews because questionnaire items were closed-ended (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2012). Interviews allowed for the collection of more information from the port authorities. Additionally, the researcher was able to compare the interview explanations with the questionnaire items. Doing this made quantitative data to be more meaningful.
3.6 Data collection and presentation
Collection of data involved sampling technique, questionnaire, interviews and secondary sources.
3.6.2 Sampling technique
The researcher used convenient sampling in order to select subjects that were convenient and in proximity (Wilson, 2014). The study was based on the port of Mumbai and Jawaharlal Nehru Port. The researcher randomly selected 90 port staff from the two ports and administered questionnaires to them. The number of questionnaires administered was 90 but only 70 were filled and returned. Therefore, the sample size was N=70. This sample was manageable and allowed for efficient use of both time and resources. Furthermore, it guaranteed a high degree of reliability and validity when making generalisations.
A government list was used to access all ports in India and the larger ones in terms of operation were selected. Systematic sampling was used to select four port authorities who participated in the interview. This form of sampling involves selecting the 1st, 5th, 10th and 15th port authorities. All fears of occurrence of biases were eliminated by using systematic sampling. The researcher assumed that the study sample is made up of people with accurate information concerning the government and the Indian port sector. This implies that all collected information will be treated as true to the word and a true representation of reality. Besides that, the researcher will assume that the participants are of sober mind during data collection and their responses will be treated as a clear presentation of the best of their knowledge.
3.6.2 Questionnaires
A pilot study was done prior to the actual study by administering 10 questionnaires and interviewing one randomly selected port authority. The pilot study was advantageous in that it allowed for evaluation of the study feasibility, time, cost and statistical variability (Fowler Jr, 2013). After the pilot study, it was discovered that the questionnaire items were too many and the planned number of 10 interviewees would be unmanageable. The number of items in the questionnaire were reduced from 25 to 11 and interviewees from 10 to 4. The pilot study as such provided insights on the ambiguity of the questionnaires and they were corrected appropriately. Questionnaires were administered to participants to be filled at their own free time because they had different break times. Using self- administered questionnaires increased the possibility of accessing many respondents in different ports in India. However, questionnaires were costly to produce and distribute to a large number of respondents in different locations.
The items in the questionnaires involved Likert Scale questions in which the respondents revealed their level of agreement or disagreement with the availed statements. According to Wilson (2014), Likert scale questions allow for assessment of the level of attitude and opinions held by the sample towards specific aspects. The criteria used was a scale of 1-5 in which 1 implied strongly agree, 2 for disagree, 3 for neutral, 4 for agree and five for strongly agree.
3.6.3 Interviews
5 interview questions were used during the study and were administered to four systematically sampled port authorities in India.
3.6.4 Secondary sources
Secondary methodology involved use of data that was already collected for another purpose and is readily available, the secondary sources used for this study were government records, trade associations, the library and the internet. The information that was collected from this sources included journals, country reports, publications, official statistics, industry statistics and websites that had information on the government initiatives on the Indian Port Sector.
The researcher used secondary data because it was hard to collect information from government officials. Wilson (2014) argues that government officials do not readily discuss issues or conduct interviews with anyone, therefore, interviewing or distributing questionnaires to them would be unrealistic and would have compromised reliability and validity. Secondary data is cost effective, high quality time-saving and allows for re-analysis of findings. While searching for secondary sources over the internet, the researcher used words such as ‘Indian port sector,’ ‘marine industry’ and ‘government in marine industry.’ These key words were critical as they allowed for the collection of the most convenient data. The inclusion and exclusion criteria were used to determine the articles to be subjected to critical analysis (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2012). This criterion was based on the year of publication, the significance and expertise of the author and the study topic. The sources that were included involved those that had the key words and a topic about the impact of government on the port sector. Also, the researcher used journals not older than 5 years and old not older than 10 years. In selecting books and journals, the researcher chose those with authors who had experience in the subject of government and/or Port Sector in India. Therefore, sources that did not involve these components were excluded.
3.6.4 Data analysis
Collection of data was done using qualitative, quantitative and secondary sources. Quantitative data was collected using questionnaires and analysed using statistical methods. SPSS statistical software was used to analyse this data and feedback presented in percentages and rates by coding data through real numbers such as 1,2,3… for easy analysis. The analysed data was presented using tables, charts and figures. Qualitative data, on the other hand, was analysed using recursive abstraction. This method as per Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill (2012) does not involve coding. Instead datasets are summarised and distilled to obtain the required information.
3.7 Limitations, validity and reliability
The research was carried out in one country only, India. The researcher only used a sample size of 120 respondents and 4 interviewees. Despite this limitation, the researcher ensured that there was validity and reliability in ore r to achieve generalizable findings. Validity as per Hair (2015) refers to the truthfulness and accuracy of the findings. To ensure high validity, the researcher used percentages to calculate and compare the number of participants for and against a specific statement. These percentages were obtained from SPSS software. Involving the port authorities also ensured collection of accurate information.
Reliability refers to the ability of data to be dependable because of its consistency. The researcher is confident that if this research was carried out in the same place and using the same procedures by another researcher, they wold arrive to similar findings. Using a large number of respondents also ensured validity because patterns could be drawn from the questionnaire answers. Therefore, the findings of this study can be used by organizations to make critical decisions.
3.8 Ethical considerations
It is essential to observe ethics when undertaking a research. Security, confidentiality and consent were observed by the researcher. The researcher observed ethics by seeking permission from managers of the studied ports before initiating the research. Consent was also sought form individual respondents and no one was forced to take part in the study. Seeking permission involved wiring an introductory message to inform the respondents of the necessity of participating in the study. Collected data was protected from unwanted parties by sing passwords in secured computers. Also, collected data was only used for research purposes.
3.9 Timescale
Table 1: Timescale
Jan Feb Mar Apr May
Developing an outline
Writing literature review
Writing methodology
Preparation of questionnaires
Data analysis and discussion
Reviewing the dissertation
Submission
(Source: Researcher, 2017)

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1Chapter introduction

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1Chapter introduction
The aim of this chapter is to review the literature on the impact of government on the port sector. The chapter will be divided into three sections namely, theoretical, conceptual and empirical. The conceptual review will present a discussion of concepts while the empirical review will analyse previous studies on this topic. The theoretical review will discuss theories that are relevant to the topic and which will be used to explain the relationship between variables. Also, gaps in literature will be identified.
2.2 Conceptual review
2.2.1 The nature of the port sector
Gibbs et al.(2014) define a port as a location on the coast that is made up of harbours where ships can dock, offload or load cargo and people to and from land. The selection of ports depends on the access to water and land for both demand and shelter from waves and wind. Ports with deeper water though rare are said to handle larger vessels (Mokhtariet al., 2011). The storage and support facilities of ports vary widely depending on the traffic. There are different types of ports such as cargo ports, in-land ports, and seaports among others.At times, ports fall out of use maybe due to changes in the coastline, changes inshippingmethods or coastal erosion (Kirubakaran, 2010). Also, several initiatives have been established to decrease negative environmental effects on port such as World Ports Climate Initative, SIMPYC, EcoPorts and African Green Port initiatives among others (Brooks, 2010). Ports often have equipment to handle cargo such as forklifts and cranes
2.2.2 Port modernization and the impact of the government
Port modernization as per Lee, Song and Ducruet (2008) refers to the development of ports using the most recent technology and infrastructure. As such, existing facilities are upgraded to handle traffic and containers. The changes in cargo handling that has been brought about by the new technology in shipping and the need to maximize the utilization of existing facilities has resulted in port modernization. Most marine transport in the world is challenged by inefficient port operations and inadequate provision of infrastructure. These delays have resulted in increased costs. Ng and Liu (2010) argue that this problem can only be solved through port modernization. Port modernization is advantageous in various ways. According to Padilha and Ng (2012), it enables reliable, safe and cost-effective port operation. Use of technology allows for interconnection of port activities such as cargo handling which in turn stimulates the performance of the overall port operation. Secondly, poor modernization enhances resiliency thus enabling facilities to survive extreme seismic events (Mandal, Roychowdhury and Biswas, 2016).
A majority of traditional ports with obsolete technology and infrastructure lack shape and the capacity to recover quickly from seismic events (Roso, Woxenius&Lumsden, 2009). It is, therefore, imperative to modernise them. Thirdly, modernised ports have improved operational efficiency and can accommodate modern shipping operations such as support larger vessels. Besides that, port modernization is essential to accommodate the changing market and economic needs. For example, shipment of petroleum products is increasing significantly than cargo growth thus necessitating port modernization (Wang and Ducruet, 2012). Therefore, new ships to shore cranes are advantageous as they allow for larger container vessels. However, Lai et al. (2011) argue that port modernization is an expensive initiative that requires adequate funding.
In a world where globalization and open economies are becoming the rule, the public sector ports still continue to operate in accordance with an outdated model characterised by inefficiencies and labour regimes. As such, a larger part of the port system is still lagging behind ion responding to the new demands of the world economy. Moreover, the sector tends to hinder full incorporation into the world economy due to its inadequate technology, slow operations and bureaucracy. For nations to be successful, it is essential for governments to intensify port modernization process which has already started in some nations. As earlier stated port modernization is a costly adventure that requires adequate funding. As such, it is imperative of governments to allocate finances to port labouring training (Rodrigue, 2010). These labourers should be equipped with IT knowledge and information on equipment operation that is required in port modernization. Ducruet, Lee and Ng, (2010) also contend that while doing so, the government should take care not to interfere politically as this will limit the ability of the port authority to operate efficiently.
Governments in different countries in the world have taken initiatives to modernize ports in their country (Verny and Grigentin, 2009). In Tanzania, the government has initiated second port modernization to provide a more reliable and cost effective transport link for the neighbouring landlocked countries and as such facilitate their overseas trade activities (Kirubakaran, 2010). Countries like Estonia and Iceland have also been ranked higher than the USA in port infrastructure and this has enabled them to gain a competitive advantage in an export-driven economy (Ducruet and Notteboom, 2012). In Ecuador, there are nine private port terminals, six oil terminals and four open port installations. The government took advantage of this and decided to modernize the public ports (Lam and Yap, 2011). In Philippines, the government plans to expand the capacity of Davao seaport due to the rapid growing volume of cargo (Nam and Song, 2011).
2.2.3 New port development and the impact of the government
New port development in overall is the development of new ports. Lam and Yap (2011) argue that real estate needs of importing companies have resulted in tremendous congestion in the port sector due to the amount of goods manufactured and exported. It is estimated that in the next five years, a majority of ports will triple their freight throughout and the containership capacity (Investindia.gov.in, 2017). To address this issue, the maritime industry is taking a shift to focus more on the development of new ports. Furthermore, the increased and continuous demand for bulk commodities of raw materials has created demand for shipping transport requiring for the development of new ports to sustain this demand. According to Sakhuja (2011), seaway transportation is mostly used to transport loads of heavy capacity because it is the cheapest and most effective. As such, governments in different countries have established policies to expand their port capacity by developing new ports. Government policies to develop new ports has benefited the port sector in various ways. Firstly, development of new inland ports that are in close proximity to the ‘traditional’ ports has enhanced efficient access to the transportation system and logistic services (Amit, 2017). This has also helped to reduce workload at major ports. Secondly, new ports have helped to extend the parking for containers and trailers as in the case of Europe (Chin and Low, 2010). Thirdly, development of new ports in countries such as China has resulted in increased capacity in that it increases the intermodal capacity for inland freight distribution (Wang et al., 2014). This additional capacity can be used for off-site storage. Palliset al. (2011) posit that governments such as that of Canada have sought new port development as a way of taking advantage of the new available infrastructure and improved technology. Examples of new port initiatives by the government include the Sagarmala project in India, the proposed New Port of Galway in New Zealand, among others.
2.2.4 FDI in port sector and the impact of the government
FDI plays a vital role in the economic development of man nations. The reason behind pioneering for inward FDI is to promote productivity gains through sharing of managerial skills, technology and enhancing access to markets (Lu, Shang and Lin, 2012). The port sector, just like any other sector has challenges of sustaining its growth in an efficient and cost effective manner. As stated earlier, development of ports requires both port modernization and port development and these two can only be achieved through inward FDI. According to Poelhekke and van der Ploeg (2010), allowing 100% FDI into the port sector helps to supplement technology and skills and domestic capital for an accelerated economic growth.
Othman, Bruce and Hamid (2011) outline various advantages of FDI to the port sector of the involved countries. FDI stimulates economic development by creating a more conducive environment for investors while at the same time benefiting the domestic nation. Also, it promotes international trade by breaking the bonds on import tariff and increasing the international presence of the involved country (Banerjee and Gupta, 2013). Furthermore, inward FDI helps to create more jobs for people in the port sector due to the development of new infrastructure and expansion of the sector. More importantly, FDI enhances the development of the human resources in the port sector as people get training on new port technology and procedures. The port sector also experiences high productivity because FDI results in improved infrastructure which greatly reduces the production cost. Although FDI in the port sector has many benefits, Arnold et al. (2012) argue that it hinders domestic investment and is at risk of political changes.
Weak operational performance in major seaports of different countries couples up with low levels of investments in port infrastructure have triggered governments in such countries to come up with policies to attract inward FDI (Meersman, Van De Voorde and Vanelslander, 2014). Governments can attract foreign investors in the port sector by permitting 100% FDI through automatic route and also through joint venture formations. This FDI has been used by the port sector in countries such as Europe to create an optimal port infrastructure, foster strategic alliance and expedite implementation of skills.
Governments can permit FDI to be used in both port connectivity and port infrastructure. Improvement of infrastructure involves activities such as the construction of additional assets, container terminals, construction of cargo handling facilities and warehouse facilities, ship repair facilities and construction of dry docks among others. For example in the UK and China port sector, FDI has supplemented technology and skills and domestic capital (Kent, and Fox, 2004). According to the World Bank, positive FDI policies on the port sector by governments promote economic growth in the manufacturing sector and leads to rapid growth in the port throughput (Meersman, Van De Voorde and Vanelslander, 2014). Besides infrastructure, permission of 100% FDI by the government in the port sector has led to port connectivity in most nations, there is a lot of traffic caused by trucks on both roads and railways. Port connectivity allow for the development of Dedicated Freight Corridors (DFC) which provide additional truck capacity thus easing traffic (Haralambides and Behrens, 2000).
In China, the government has allowed foreign investors in the port sector and recently launched a new door-to-door cargo service goods service between Europe and China with the aim of expanding the sector (Xu and Yip, 2012). In the UK, the government permitted the privation of the UK port sector and this led to the development of infrastructure e and expansion of the sector making it one of the best developed port sector in the world. In India, the government permitted a 100% FDI on the port sector (Lu, Shang and Lin, 2012).
2.3 Theoretical review
Theories are vital in research because they provide a well-substantial explanation of aspects of the natural world based on facts that have been confirmed through experiments and observations. This research will be guided by the modernization theory and the Solow-Swan model.
2.3.1 Modernization theory
The theory of modernization posits that modernization is a continuous transition from ‘traditional’ or ‘pre-modern’ to a modern society (Warner, 2010). It originated from the ideas of Max Weber (1864-1920) who was a German sociologist. The theory explores the internal characteristics of a country and assumes that with assistance, the ‘pre-modern’ nations can be developed just like the more developed countries. The theory attempts to determine the social variables which contribute to development and also explores social evolution. Warner (2010) contends that modernization theory stresses on both the change process and responses to that change. Besides that, the theory also assumes that the traditional societies will develop when they adopt more modern practices. Developments such as new technology and improved transport make modernization essential. However, critics of the theory argue that it encourages the adoption of western culture leading to a destruction of the domestic culture.
This theory can be applied to the impact of the government on port modernization in the Indian Port Sector. The Indian Port Sector can be said to be ‘pre-modern’ as per the theory. The sector still uses traditional systems and infrastructure which result in slow production, inefficiencies and traffic (Warner, 2010). In order for the Indian Port Sector to transit from its ‘pre-modern’ way to a modern way, it will have to modernize. According to the modernization theory, modernization of the Indian Port Sector will involve the adoption of the most recent or ‘modern’ technology. This will enable it to develop like the developed nations.
2.3.2 Solow-Swan Model
Developed by Trevor Swan and Robot Solow in 1965, the Solow-Swan model describes the long-run economic growth based on technological progress, population growth, productivity and capital accumulation (Guerrini, 2010). In this case, the capital accumulation in Solow’s model is substituted by FDI and the population presents the port traffic. According to the model, FDI is more valuable than the domestic capital due to the belief that FDI promotes technological development ultimately increasing production (Guerrini, 2012). The model posits that output can be affected by governments’ policies such as subsidies and tax but not the long run growth rate. The growth rate will be influenced by the technological progress such as the replacement of inefficient port equipment (Guerrini, 2010). Therefore, according to the model, inward FDI will boost technological progress in the Indian Port Sector resulting in an increase in the production levels. In the short-run, growth in the Indian Port Sector will be determined by the steady level created by capital investment. On the other hand, in the long run, growth in the sector will be achieved through technological progress. As such, it is imperative for the Indian government to encourage inward FDI in order to improve port technology and increase production.
2.4 Empirical review
Gujar et al. (2014) studied the effect of government policies on FDI in the India Port Sector. The aim of the paper was to identify how inward FDI affects the Indian Port Sector. The study used secondary data methodology by reviewing data on the Indian Port Sector, current government policies and the challenges faced by the foreign investors. The authors used the Solow-Swan model to explain the link between variables. The findings of the study show that India is an attractive destination for FDI and especially in the infrastructure area. Also, the researchers note that although the Indian Port sector has attracted a substantial amount of FDI in the past, it is still not adequate compared to other port sectors like Australia and China. The researchers conclude that total productivity of the port sector is greatly influenced by the presence of the government in the market which slows down the FDI inflows. However, the study is limited to secondary sources which are not always reliable.
Mukundan (2007) undertook a comparative study of the maritime operations in India. The aim of the study is to compare the maritime operations in India with those of China. The researcher used a secondary data methodology to discuss the strong economic maritime growth in China and the current scenario of the maritime sector in India. Secondary data was the best choice for the researchers because it was impossible to carry out a primary survey in both countries. The researcher used descriptive design to compare the maritime sector of the two countries. The findings of the study show that India lags behind in port growth as compared to China because most of the maritime sector such as shipping, ports and shipbuilding is still owned by the government. As such, this has resulted in inadequate funding from the government for growth, high bureaucracy levels leading to slow implementation and a lack of accountability. Furthermore, India has a poor maritime infrastructure. The findings of this study are reliable and generalizable to the whole country.
Another study is that by Ng and Gujar (2008) on the impact of government policies on India’s Dry Ports. The aim of the research was to investigate how the government of India has tried to solve dry port issues and how political influence can shape the competitive structure of an industry in developing countries. The study was guided by the Porter’s Competitive Diamond model. The methodology of the study included desk research, and an in-depth interview with 26 companies that had operated, invested and/or managed dry ports in India. The interviewees were carefully selected and involved persons with key strategic decisions. The study found out that the Indian dry port is characterized by inefficiency. The government has addressed this problem by introducing foreign investors through joint ventures and Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) arrangements.
Ammar Jouili and AnisAllouche (2016) also studied how investment in the seaport affects the economic growth and infrastructure in the port sector. According to the paper, seaports are considered by governments to be vital factors in strengthening economies. The study was based in Tunisia and sought to evaluate how the government of Tunisia has allocated funds to develop infrastructure in the seaports. The methodology of the study involved a secondary data analysis on the infrastructure in Tunisia port sector. The findings of the study show that government investments in the seaport infrastructure has positively influenced the economy of Tunisia. This study is crucial in our current study as it contribute on the knowledge of the importance of government initiatives to improve port infrastructure.
Hiranandani (2012) focussed his study on “sustainable development in the maritime industry using a multi-case study of seaports.” The aim of the study was to analyse the sustainable port practices that governments have implemented in the port sector as well as identify challenges and opportunities faced by seaports. The researchers studied four ports by evaluating secondary data. These ports include Port of Rotterdam Authority in Netherlands, Transnet Ltd. Write a literature review or synthesis essay. In South Africa, Sydney Ports Corporation and the Port of Long Beach in the USA. The findings of the study showed that favourable government policies on public-private partnership, port sustainability and environmental-friendliness boosted the port sector. Also, all ports apart from South Africa’s Transnet were found to be in public-private partnerships. This study is relevant to the current study because it provides adequate knowledge on the impact of government policies on the port sector.
De and Ghosh (2003) undertook a study on the link between performance and traffic in the Indian ports. The study methodology employed econometric tests in order to determine the causal relationship between traffic and performance. Also, the port performance index (PPI) was used to measure the performance of the major ports in India. The findings of the study show that an improvement in asset and operational performance of a port results in higher traffic. As such, the Indian government has taken initiatives to address this issue by expanding the capacity of their ports. The study recommends that the Indian government should formulate policies by giving a priority to performance enhancing facilities so as to reduce traffic caused by high inefficiency. This study provides insights on the need for port expansion to reduce traffic and the role of government policies in port capacity. However, the findings of the study would have been more substantial if the external factors that influence performance and traffic such as technology, navigation channel and vessel size were considered.
Researchers such as Haralambides and Gujar (2011) evaluated the pricing policies and opportunities for public-private partnership in the Indian port sector. According to the study, the Indian port sector has a substantial overcapacity. This has led to the reduction of supply despite the increased demand. Both the Indian government and the private sectors view the Indian Port Sector as a pivot of export-led growth. However, the post sector is still majorly dominated by the public sector and conditions that make participation of the private sector to be risky. In order to solve this problem, the researchers recommend that the government should come up with strategies to attract foreign investment as well as maintain the domestic industry.
2.5 Gaps in literature
There still exist gaps in the literature on the impact of the Indian government on the Indian Port Sector. Gujar et al. (2014) only studies the impact of government policies of FDI on the Indian Port Sector and failed to discuss other government initiatives. Write a literature review on maritime science. Furthermore, the study was limited to secondary sources. Mukundan (2007), on the other hand, only compared the maritime operations of Chia with India and although he pointed out the problems facing Indian maritime and the need for government interventions, he did not focus much on government policies in the Indian sector. Ng and Gujar (2008) was close to the current topic but he majored on the dry ports and did not touch on other sections in the India Port sector. Ammar Jouili and AnisAllouche (2016) study’ contributes to the knowledge ion how government policies can attract investment in the port sector which can ultimately lead to improved infrastructure. However, the study was based in Tunisia. Hiranandani (2012) expounded on sustainable development and the practices that governments of Australia, South Africa, Netherlands and the USA have done towards sustainable development in their port sectors. Again, India was not included in the multi-case study. De and Ghosh (2003) only emphasized on the correlation between performance and traffic in the Indian port sector while Haralambides and Gujar (2011) reviewed policies on pricing and public-private partnership in the Indian port sector. Although all these studies contribute bits by bits in forming the current topic. None holistically addresses the current topic. The current research strives to fill this gap that exists in the literature on the impact of Indian government o the India Port sector.
2.6 Conceptual framework
The following framework was developed based on the variables of the study. The Indian Port Sector is the dependent variable because it cannot thrive without the independent variables. The independent variables are government policies of FDI, port modernization and new port development.
Figure 1: Conceptual framework
Independent variables Dependent variable

(Source: Researcher, 2017)
2.7 Chapter summary
The aim of this chapter was to critically review the literature on the impact of the government on the port sector. According to the literature port modernization and new port development are capital-intensive activities that require adequate funding from the governments. As such, governments in different nations such as Europe and China have established initiatives to address these issues. Additionally, different governments have allowed inward FDI in the port sector with the aim of improving infrastructure through new technology. The theory of modernization has been used to explain the importance of pot modernization while Solow-Swan economic model explains the benefits of inward FDI in the Indian port sector.

AN ANALYSIS OF IMPACT OF INDIAN GOVERNMENT ON PORTS IN INDIA

AN ANALYSIS OF IMPACT OF INDIAN GOVERNMENT
ON PORTS IN INDIA

The construction of port infrastructure and acquisition of new equipment is a capital intensive activity. As such, most port projects rely on the government for support. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the Indian government on the Indian Port Sector. The study was guided by three objectives: to investigate the impact of the Indian government on port modernization on the Indian Port Sector, to find out how the Indian government has influenced new port development in the Indian Port Sector, and to determine the effect of the Indian government policies on FDI on the Indian Port Sector. The methodology used both primary and secondary methods. The primary methods involved administering questionnaires to 70 staff members in the port of Mumbai and JNPT port. Interviewees were also conducted on four port authorities. Also, secondary sources were used to re-analyse already existing information. Analysis of data was done using SPSS statistical software and recursive abstraction for the interviewees. The findings of the study show that the Indian government has positively impacted on the Indian port sector by attracting foreign investors, modernising new ports and the development of new ports.

List of figures
Figure 1: Conceptual framework 21
Figure 2: Research onion 23
Figure 3: Cargo traffic at non-major ports 33
Figure 4: Fiscal year throughput at major India Ports 35
Figure 5: Traffic handled by major and minor ports 36
Figure 6: Throughput of major ports in India 37
Figure 7: Foreign Direct Investment in Ports 39

List of tables
Table 1: Timescale 30
Table 2: Response according to gender 41
Table 3: Response according to age 42
Table 4: Response according to the impact of the government on new port development 44
Table 5: Response according to whether the government policy of 100% FDI in automatic route has improved port infrastructure 45
Table 6: Response according to the impact of the government on port modernization 46
Table 7: Response on factors that limit the growth of the Indian port sector 47
Table 8: Response on poor technology in the port sector 47
Table 9: Response on ownership by the government 48
Table 10: Response on inadequate cargo-handling and machinery 48
Table 11: Responses on inefficiency due to poor connectivity through ports 49
Table 12: Interviewee profile 50

Table of contents
Contents
Abstract 2
List of figures 3
List of tables 3
Table of contents 3
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 6
1.1 Background information 6
1.2 Justification 7
1.3 Rationale of Research 8
1.4 Research Aim and objectives 8
1.5 Scope and limitations of the Study 8
1.6 Structure of this dissertation 9
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 10
2.2 Conceptual review 10
2.2.1 The nature of the port sector 10
2.2.2 Port modernization and the impact of the government 10
2.2.3 New port development and the impact of the government 12
2.2.4 FDI in port sector and the impact of the government 13
2.3 Theoretical review 15
2.3.1 Modernization theory 15
2.3.2 Solow-Swan Model 16
2.4 Empirical review 17
2.5 Gaps in literature 20
2.6 Conceptual framework 21
2.7 Chapter summary 21
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY 23
3.1 Chapter introduction 23
3.2 Research philosophy 23
3.3. Research approach 24
3.4 Research strategy 25
3.5 Time horizon 25
3.6 Research choice 25
3.6 Data collection and presentation 26
3.6.2 Sampling technique 26
3.6.2 Questionnaires 27
3.6.3 Interviews 27
3.6.4 Secondary sources 27
3.6.4 Data analysis 28
3.7 Limitations, validity and reliability 29
3.8 Ethical considerations 29
3.9 Timescale 30
CHAPTER 4: ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION OF FINDINGS (secondary data) 31
4.1 Chapter introduction 31
4.2 The Indian Port Sector 31
4.3 The impact of the Indian government on port modernization on the Indian Port Sector 32
4.4 Indian government has influenced new port development in the Indian Port Sector 34
4.5 The effect of the Indian government policies on FDI on the Indian Port Sector 37
4.6 Chapter summary 40
CHAPTER 5 (a): DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION OF FINDINGS: QUESTIONNAIRES 41
5.1 Chapter introduction 41
5.2 Response rate 41
5.2.1 Response according to gender 41
5.2.2 Response according to age 42
5.3 Response according to the impact of the government on new port development 43
5.4 Response according to whether the government policy of 100% FDI in automatic route has improved port infrastructure 44
5.5 Response according to the impact of the government on port modernization 46
5.6 Response on factors that limit the growth of the Indian port sector 46
CHAPTER 5 (b): DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION OF FINDINGS: INTERVIEWS 50
5.1 Interviewee profile 50
5.2 Response on the challenges and opportunities in the Indian Port Sector 50
5.3 Respondents view on the government policy of 100% FDI in the port sector 52
5.4 Responses on the impact of government initiatives to modernize ports 53
5.5 Respondents view on whether the government’s plan to develop new ports will help the port industry 54
5.6 Response according to how has the government impacted on you port 55
5.7 Chapter summary 56
CHAPTER 6: SUMMARIES, CONCLUSIONS AND RECCOMENDATIONS 56
6.1 Summaries 56
6.2 Conclusions (Answers to research questions) 58
6.3 Recommendations 60
6.4 Suggestions for future research 62
Reference list 63
APPENDIX 1: QUESTIONNAIRE 71
APPENDIX 2: INTERVIEWS 73

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background information
The recent improvement in technology and infrastructure has resulted in the development of better and modern ports in a majority of nations. The port sector as per Ng and Gujar (2009) refers to a location in the shore where ships dock and carry cargo and people to and from the land. The location of ports depends on the accessibility to land and water for shelter from waves and also for commercial demand. The port sector is a major economic contributor to most countries. It is this notion that countries are now opting for ways to enhance their ports and reap from the new technology. However, Panigrahi and Pradhan (2012) argue that development and improvement of ports often requires huge sums of money that can only be provided through government initiatives. The main areas in the port sector that promote the effectiveness of ports are port modernisation, development of new ports and attraction of foreigners with the aim of improving infrastructure.
Port modernization is the improvement of the existing port infrastructure and technology to incorporate modern machines, tools and technology solutions such as RFID (Sanchez and Garcia-Alonso, 2011). On the other hand, when it is impossible to modernize old ports or due to traffic reasons, the only option is to develop new ports. Development of new ports is advantageous in that it reduces traffic, allows for the incorporation of new technology and improves cargo handling among others (Joc.com, 2017). Besides new port development and port modernisation, it is also vital to attract foreign investors in the port sector as they encourage technological transfers and recommend better infrastructure (Lam and Notteboom, 2014). As earlier stated, these operations often depend on government policies or government budget because they are capital intensive. It is on this notion that this paper discusses the impact of government initiatives of foreign Direct Investment, port modernization and new port development in the port sector.
India has been selected as a case study because its coastline spans 7516.6 kilometres forming one of the biggest peninsulas in the globe (Panigrahi and Pradhan, 2012). Besides that India is currently in the face of improving its port sector. Besides that, the Indian shipping industry with the emergence of liberalization and globalization is firmly ready to take a new turn in terms of infrastructural and demand development (Lam and Notteboom, 2014). The aim of this study is to investigate how the Indian government has impact on FDI, port modernization and new port development in the Indian Port Sector.
1.2 Justification
While it’s true that the shipping industry is a major economic sector in India, it remains not fully untapped. According to Kirubakaran (2010), increasing connectivity with inland transport network is a huge challenge facing Indian Port Sector. Then there is the issue of traffic that was estimated to reach 877 million tonnes in 2012 and a 15.5% of containerized cargo over the next seven years. The current infrastructure in Indian ports is not sufficient to handle increased loads. This implies that expansion of the Indian Port Sector is a necessary prerequisite to further economic growth. It is, therefore, necessary to critically investigate what the Indian Government is doing to address this issues. Besides that, there exists gap in the literature on this topic. Previous researchers majorly focussed on issues affecting Indian Port Sector and failed to assess government initiatives. For example, Haralambides and Behrens (2000) researched on Indian port restructuring, while Gujar et al. (2014) only studied the impact of government policies on FDI on Indian Port Sector. Although Ng and Gujar (2009) investigated on efficiency and competitiveness of government policies on Indian dry ports, they did not talk much about the effect of these policies on the port sector. As such, there are no holistic studies on the impact of the government on the Indian Port Sector. The current study aims to fill this gap.
1.3 Rationale of Research
This research is significant as it will enable port authorities to identify the impact of government initiatives in form of port modernization, development of new ports and foreign investors. Additionally, it will help both the government officials and the port authorities to identify the issues faced in the Indian Port Sector and come up with more policies to improve infrastructure in this sector. The research is vital because it will enable Port operators to appreciate the vitality of the Indian Port Sector and rekindle the motivation of striving to improve the services in this sector. Additionally, the final report of this study will be used as a reference for the government and port authorities as they learn ways of improving the Indian Port Sector.
1.4 Research Aim and objectives
The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of Indian government on ports in India.
This study will be guided by the following objectives:
1. To investigate the impact of the Indian government on port modernization on the Indian Port Sector.
2. To find out how the Indian government has influenced new port development in the Indian Port Sector
3. To determine the effect of the Indian government policies on FDI on the Indian Port Sector.
1.5 Scope and limitations of the Study
The study will be limited by both thematic and geographic factors. Thematic scope means that the researcher will only focus on the government and the port sector. All other factors that affect the port sector will not be discussed. As such, the researcher will only focus on the impact of government on the port sector. Geographically, the study will be limited to India; India is one of the Asian countries located in South Asia. All other countries whose governments have influenced the port sector will not be studied.
The researcher intends to use both primary and secondary data collection method. Primary data collection involves using interviews and questionnaires as instruments of data collection. Preparing and administering questionnaires and interviews is both time consuming and resource based. This limitation will be delimited by sourcing products from the most affordable providers and only buy the necessary items to avoid financial problems. Then there is the problem of uncooperative respondents. It will be solved by educating the participants of the vitality of the study to both the government and the port sector.
1.6 Structure of this dissertation
This dissertation will be organized into five sections that will be referred to as ‘chapters.’ The first chapter is the introduction chapter which discusses the background information on the topic and states the problem to be addressed. Previous researches on the same topic, relevant theories that explain variables, explanation of concepts and determination of the gaps that exist in literature will be discussed in chapter 2. Chapter three will involve the methods used to carry out the research and findings will be presented in the fourth chapter. Analysis of secondary and primary data will be done in chapter 5. The final section will entail summaries of the major findings, conclusions (answers to research questions) and recommendations for future researchers.